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  CSPAN    Capitol Hill Hearings    News/Business.  

    January 24, 2013
    8:00 - 1:00am EST  

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john kerry, who testified at his confirmation hearing. today, leon panetta announced the pentagon was ending the ban on women serving in combat. we will have >> what is the best training for a policeman? >> the best training you can get is walking a foot beat. you learn how to develop sources. you'll learn how to leverage relationships in the community. people in the community trust you, they will tell you when things are happening better not yet a crime. you can intervene. i really learned the most in my career from those relationships. >> from high school dropout and
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single mother to the youngest police chief in washington, d.c., history, more with cathy lanier. >> secretary of state nominee john kerrey appeared at his confirmation hearing before the senate foreign relations committee. during this three-hour 15 minute hearing, he spoke about the september benghazi attacks and some of the foreign policy challenges facing the u.s., including iran, afghanistan, and syria. he also talked about the vietnam war after returning from vietnam over 40 years ago, he testified about his experience before this committee. john kerry is introduced by elizabeth warren, john mccain, and hillary clinton. a vote on his nomination by the full senate is expected next week.
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>> good morning. this hearing of the senate foreign relations committee will come to order. let me ask, as i did yesterday, i ask unanimous consent of returning members to allow prospective member to complete -- participate in today's hearing. if there is no objection, it is so ordered. let me start by saying, you are not at the table yet, senator. we will have you there shortly. wow. let me say, mr. chairman, you are still our committees chaired, deeply humbled to preside over the committee today as we consider your nomination.
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we are honored to welcome you as the president's nominee for a position you have most deservedly earned. the first time you testified before chairman fulbright as a young returning vietnam war hero in 1971 to the day the president nominated and announced your nomination as secretary of state. you may not be aware of it, but you'll be the first member of this panel to send directly to the position since senator john sherman of ohio. you are clearly making history once again. yours is a big chair to phil and i will do my best today to live up to your example -- to fill and i will do my best today to live up to your example. always open to debate, always ready to mitigate disagreements, always looking for the truth on covering -- uncovering the
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facts, hearing all the evidence and publicly speaking truth to power. as a senator and a member of this committee and as chairman, you have already build stronger relationships with leaders around the world, which will help you seamlessly into the role of secretary of state. you will need no introduction to the world's political and military leaders and will begin on thank you and fully converse with the intricacies of u.s. policies and with an understanding of the nuanced approach necessary to effectively interact on a multi national stage. when vice president biden said in his chair, he said good international relationships are always predicated on strong interpersonal relationships. i think we can all agree that you have such a high standard for developing those relationships about your career and a secretary of state, you will continue to strengthen those relationships on behalf of the president.
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i will have some questions later on policies and your views, including how do explain to world leaders how you could of been rooting for the boston red sox instead of what the world knows as the new york yankees as a team of the world, but it has been a pleasure working with you looking forward to continuing to work with you any issues you have championed over the years. fighting global terrorism, preventing the spread of chemical weapons, fighting for human rights. fighting crimes for drug trafficking and standing up for the interest of foreign service around the world. should you be confirmed, and i know you will, your portfolio will be greatly expanded, you'll be center stage representing the interests of all of us. promoting commerce, enhancing
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cross cultural ties and keeping america secure through cooperation more possible and isolation were necessary as in the case of iran. it goes without saying that you have been a world leader in one of the most consequential issues of our time, climate change. it hardens me to know that some with your commitment to the issue -- heartens me to know that someone with your commitment to the issue will be our voice to the world. the state department cannot be in better hands. when it comes to america's role in world affairs, i know we agree it is critical the united states remain fully engaged. we project the power of our military strength when necessary and the wisdom of our democratic ideals as we adjust to the new threats and demands we will face. there is no doubt he will be tested in your new role as secretary, nor is there any doubt that you will pass any tests with honors as you always have. let me thank you on behalf of the committee for all you have
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done in the senate and the chairmanship of this committee is an anticipation of your confirmation by the full senate, i wish you good luck and godspeed in many journeys that lie ahead. we look forward to having a close working relationship with you as the next secretary of state. let me recognize senator corker. >> thank you, mr. chairman. let me thank are three distinguished guests. i want to thank you for your courtesy over the last six years as i served on this committee. i looked at you and been nominated for this as someone who has lived their entire life for this moment of being able to serve in this capacity. there is no line in the united states senate that has spent more time than you have on issues of -- the experience you
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have developed well-being on this committee and spending time abroad with world leaders with your wife, there is almost no one who has spent that time and effort to. i am happy for you. i know the many conversations we have had over the last two weeks, you are very anxious to serve. you are ready to go. my sense is your confirmation will go through very quickly. i do look forward to your testimony today. secretary clinton is here today after a day of hearings both here and in the house. i think you are inheriting the department that has numbers of challenges. we saw a systemic issues that need to be addressed and in the process of being addressed right now. our nation has budgetary constraints, which means that in all of these departments creativity will have to be utilized to make sure we make the most of what we have and
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making sure that our u.s. interests are put forth. we have a world that is a dangerous world and things continue to come over -- sometimes it is surprising times and i know you will have to leave our country in addressing those as they come about -- lead our country in addressing those as they come about. helping us work with you to make sure that as we move ahead, we move ahead together. we have many challenges and i know on monday, president obama said america will remain the angchor. we'll renewed those institutions that extend our capacity to manage crises abroad for no one has a greater stake in a peaceful world than the most
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powerful nation. i could not agree more. i look forward to hearing your testimony today about what you hope to do in your new capacity. i certainly welcome the three distinguished people who are here today to introduce you, which i know is a tremendous honor for you. thank you for your service. >> we have a star-studded panel to introduce the nominee. starting -- i will introduce you in order of your presentation. i want to welcome back the secretary. again. we appreciate you coming back so soon. again, thanks for incredible service to our country. maya understanding, although
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i've been told differently, senator warren, who is our new colleague from the great state of massachusetts, is gone to be part of introducing her senior center before the committee. then secretary clinton and then our distinguished colleague a member of this committee now as well, senator mccain. senator warren. >> it is an honor to be here with secretary clinton and senator mccain to introduce my senior center and my friend, senator john kerry. i have the privilege of speaking for a man i know will continue in the tradition of john quincy adams as great secretaries from the commonwealth of massachusetts. although job learned much about diplomacy overseas and in the senate, and he would be the first to tell you that massachusetts is also a great teacher of diplomatic skills whether it was negotiating his way to make the ballot as long
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shot underdog in a five-way heavily contested state convention that in 1982 are the way he brought labor and management to the table over a long weekend, brought in dunkin donuts and negotiated the men to the 92-day long teachers and nurses strike, if anyone wants to learn diplomacy, come try massachusetts politics. john story is well-known to many of us from his youth as the son of a foreign service officer. learning about foreign-policy around the dinner table each night to this service in combat in vietnam. less well known is the story of this foreign policy work inside dissonant. his 90 overseas trips that he made in 28 years on foreign relations committee, his work
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to ensure free elections in the philippines, his work with aids in africa, his work as chairman of the new start treaty and his very public and successful diplomatic intervention in afghanistan, pakistan, and sedan. -- sudan. historians will be judged his senate years on his impact on foreign policy at much the same way so many people recognized ted kennedy's impact on domestic policy. from his many years in the u.s. senate, he has developed a very personal understanding that we represent not just states or governments, but also people. i want to ask john why he loves the senate. he said it is the pride he feels in trying to get things done for people. for three years now, he has been working quietly to help a father
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from massachusetts, whose two sons were kidnapped and taken to eject. john even called former president mubarak and had a screaming match with him about it. five times he has been to egypt and every time, colin has been at the top of his list in every meeting. every senator has -- it is what we do. we fight for people back,. as secretary, john will understand that and bend over backwards to help us do that. he will be a terrific bridge from the hill to the administration. i know that john kerry cares deeply about our country and our national security. i know he believes in the good that america can do in the world. he has seen its and he has lived all his life. from since the marshall plan in action with his father, to
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volunteering to serve in the military and traveling all these years as a senator. america is and accept -- is not exceptional because we say we are. we are exceptional because we do exceptional things. when an airplane lands anywhere in the world, i will be proud that it will be john carey represented ness. thank you. >> thank you, senator. >> it is very good to be back. and to have this opportunity to join with senator boren and senator mccain in introducing president obama's nominee. i was very honored when john asked me to take part in this. john is the right choice to carry forward the obama administration's foreign policy. i urge speedy confirmation.
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as we have heard from both the chairman and ranking member and senator warren, he will bring a record of leadership at service that is exemplary. he has a view of the world that he has acted on first as a young returning veterans from vietnam who appeared before this committee for the time that he served with such distinction as its chairman. he has been a valued partner to this administration and to me personally. he has fought for our diplomats and development experts. he understands the value of investing in america's global leadership. as we work to implement the accountability review board's recommendations, he is committed to doing whatever it takes to prevent another attack and protect our people around the world. working together, we have
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achieved a great deal. the state department and usaid have a lot of unfinished business from afghanistan to non-proliferation to climate change to so much. we need to sustain our renewed engagement in the asia-pacific, continue granting of economics as a tool for advancing american interests, pressing forward with them leasing the potential of the world's women and girls, keep championing of the kind of smart power that looks to innovation and partnerships with governments and people like to promote peace and stability. john has built strong relationships with leaders and he has experienced in representing our country in fragile and unpredictable circumstances. he was in pakistan and afghanistan a few years ago. we were consulting over the phone. he played an instrumental role in working president karzei to
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accept the results of the election. i had to call harry reid so that john could continue to stay there. that is what he does. he is a determined representative of the united states, has been as a senator, it will be as secretary. let me close by saying that leading our diplomats and development experts is a great honor. every day, as i testified yesterday, i have seen firsthand their skill and bravery and unwavering commitment to our country. i have been proud to call them colleagues and to serve as secretary of state and i am very pleased that sean will be given the chance, subject to confirmation, it to continue the work of a lifetime. >> thank you, madame secretary. >> i am pleased to be here.
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to introduce and speak and say a few words about my friend senator kerry to the committee. obviously, at the nominee does not need to be introduced to the committee on which he has served for over a quarter of the century. as its chairman, so i can dispense with the customary summary. they are well known to you and to all of our colleagues. i would like to take a few moments to attest to the personal qualities that senator kerrey would bring to the office of secretary of state, which i think are well suited to the position. he and i have been friends for quite a long time now. we have had our disagreements, which is not surprising given our political differences. as is often the case, our friendship has been affected from time to time by our enthusiasm for differing views and by the competitive nature of
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politics. the friendship has in george, i believe, it is based in the tories -- has endorsed, i believe, is based in mutual respect. but we were much younger, nicer, and better looking men, senator kerry and i spent some time at the navy's behest at a certain southeast asian country and less pleasant circumstances. i have always respected and honored senator kerry service in vietnam, my respect for john as a senator and my support for his nomination today originated in the very different experience. that experience, too, concerned a country in the war he and i were pledged to serve again, it did not require marshall valor. it required at least -- it required extraordinary
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diplomatic skills. the administration of president reagan and george herbert walker bush pursued limited engagement with the government of vietnam. many americans were still listed as pow mia. that effort was led by a man both john and i respect enormously, the former chairman of the joint chiefs. he continued as the president's special emissary to vietnam. by the early 1990's, both john and i had come to the view that it would be better for our country to have a relationship with vietnam that serve our current and future interest and one that continued to nurse the hostilities of our recent tragic past. we both understood that could never be the case unless the new american soldiers were not still kept against their will in vietnam and until vietnam fully
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cooperated in helping us account for americans who did not return home from the war. to help find dancers -- answers, appointed a select committee. members of that committee had passionate and conflicting views of the subjects. whether or not vietnam's still kept american pows. the subject was controversial and provoked a strong passions of many americans, not the least of which were the families of the missing. most americans who cared about the issue were people of sincere goodwill and honesty. there ross so at a few charlatans and con artists involved in the activist who -- activist communities who promoted all kinds of conspiracy theories and plausible scenarios. on many occasions, our public hearings became circus.
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behind-the-scenes arguments between members became heated and personal as any as i've ever experienced. getting information about p.o.w. mias from the intelligence community was fraught with the usual objections and difficulties in getting information from the vietnamese even more so. it was not a pleasant experience. through it all, john let the committee with persistence and the pursuit of the truth and with an absolute unshakeable resolve to get our result that all members could accept. no matter how contentious things got, john believed he would get all of the committee to see reason and provide an answer that would be accepted by most veterans. and he did. he got all the members to agree
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to an exhaustive investigative report that concluded there was not credible evidence that americans remain in captivity in vietnam. it was a masterful accomplishment. after that experience, we work together to encourage the clinton administration and the government of vietnam to begin normalizing relations. i witnessed his diplomatic skills and practice again. his patience, persistence, persuasiveness, tact, singular focus on getting the best result possible in negotiations with a diverse array of government officials in both countries convincing a reluctant administration to make what the president's advisers considered a politically perilous decision. reluctant senators to vote for our resolution recommending normalization. it was an impressive performance, to say the least. helping to establish a
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relationship with vietnam that serves american interests and values rather than one that remained mired in mutual resentment and bitterness is one of my fault -- proudest accomplishment as the center. -- as a center. witnessing almost daily his exemplary statesmanship is one of the highest privileges i have had a year. should he be confirmed and become our next secretary of state, i am sure we will have our disagreements, i know he will -- i know he will use his many talents and his persistence to advance our country's interest. i commend his nomination to you without reservation. >> you might want to rest your case there, mr. chairman. thanks to this distinguished
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panel, thank you very much. now we call up chairman kerry. >> mr. chairman, we welcome you to the other side of the committee. we look forward to your testimony and introductions you want to make.
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>> mr. chairman, ranking member corker, members of the -- i would like to have the privilege of introducing very quickly. i think most of you know my wonderful wife. my brother, who is serving at the congress department as counsel there. my daughter vanessa and her husband both of whom are working as physicians. i have another daughter who is not here.
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i have looked down at the witnesses and wondered what they are thinking sometimes as we question them. i did not want this to affect your opening questions. i've never seen a more distinguished and more better looking group of officials in my life. suddenly, i am feeling a lot of sympathy for the folks to sit down here. i want you to know a couple of nights ago, i was watching godfather 2, if someone suddenly shows up with my long lost brother back in the audience, all bets are off, folks. i am enormously grateful for the generous comments of the chair and the ranking member. thank you very much. thank you for your tremendous cooperation over the course of the last year's.
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providing that you give me after quickly, i will be able to congratulate you when you officially assume responsibilities. i will tell you enjoyed chairing this committee and working with all of you as much as anything i have been privileged to do in my career. i think this is one of the great committees of the senate and it is the only major committee i have served on every single day since i arrived here in 1985. as you know, the committee carries special responsibilities for the security of our nation and i thank each and every one of you for the serious consideration
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you have brought to challenging issues and for the incredible cooperation i have received as chairman. if confirmed, i look forward to continuing to work closely with all of you as we tackle some very tough problems. and i particularly welcome the new members in that regard. i am grateful for president obama for nominating me. i am very grateful to secretary clinton, senator mccain and senator warren for their introductions. will not take it personally that this may be the one item in washington that seems to unite republicans and democrats to get me out of the senate quicker.
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secretary clinton has served above and beyond the call of duty. her service has been superb and we all thinker for a job well done, for her tireless efforts on behalf of our nation. she has said a very high marks for the stewardship of the state department. i can pledge to you that with the consent of the senate, i will do everything in my power to summon all my focus to build on her record and on the president's vision. senator mccain, as he mentioned, is a longtime friend. we met here in the senate, coming from very different political positions. we found common ground. i will never forget standing with them in hanoi, at just the two of us. listening to him talk about that
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experience. i will always be grateful for his partnership in helping to make real peace with vietnam by establishing the most significant process in the history of our country or of any country for the accounting of missing and dead in any war. for working to lift the embargo and ultimately normalize relations with an old enemy. john had every reason -- we were able to help heal deep wounds and into a war that had divided too many people for much too long. as we talk about war and peace and foreign policy, i want all of us to keep in our minds, as i think we do, the extraordinary men and women in uniform who are on the front lines, even as we meet here today. the troops at war to help protect america.
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i can pledge to you that as a veteran of war, i will always carry the consequences of our decisions in my mind and be grateful that we have such an extraordinary people to back us up. i also thank my new colleagues interwar and for her generous comment. -- senator warren for her generous comment. i spent 29 years. it is humbling to hear before you in this new role. my approach to this role, if confirmed, is also deeply informed by the 28 plus years i have been privileged to spend in the senate.
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that perspective will remain with me if confirmed as secretary. i am already excited by the many ways we can work together and by which we must work together in order to advance america's securities interest in a complicated and more dangerous world. i would add that i am aware that in many ways, the greatest challenge to america's foreign- policy will be in your hands. not mine. while it is often said that we cannot be strong at home if we are not strong in the world, these days of fiscal crisis, and as a recovering member of the super committee, i am especially cognizant of the fact that we cannot be strong in the world unless you're strong at home. the first priority of business which will affect my credibility as a diplomat and our credibility as a nation, as the
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work to help other countries create order, the first priority will be that america puts its own fiscal house in order. i really cannot emphasize to you enough how imperative this is. people all over the world are looking to the united states for leadership. we are known as the indispensable nation for good reason. no nation has more opportunity to advance the cause of democracy, no nation is as committed to the cause of human rights as we are. but to protect our nation and make good on our promises as well as to live up to our ideals and meet the crisis of this moment, it is urgent that we show people and the rest of the world that we can get our business done in an effective and timely way. it is difficult enough, but i will tell you, it becomes impossible or near impossible if
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we replace our credibility and leverage with gridlock and dysfunction. i have heard it might trips and secretary clinton has skirted in her trips. -- has heard it in her trips. more than ever, foreign policy is economic policy. the world is competing for resources and global markets. every day that goes by where america is uncertain about engaging in that arena or unwilling to put our best foot forward and win, i'm willing to demonstrate our resolve, it is a day in which would weaken our nation itself. my plea is that we can summon across party lines without partisan diversions and economic patriotism, which recognizes that american strength and prospects abroad depends on
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american strength and results at home. it is hard to tell the leadership of the number of countries that they have to deal with the imf, balance their budgets, create economic order where there is none if we did not provided for ourselves. it is also imperative that in implementing president obama's vision for the world, as the end more than a decade of war, that we joined together to augment our message to the world. president obama and everyone of us here knows that american foreign policy is not defined by drones and deployment alone. we cannot allow the extraordinary good that we do to save in change lives to be eclipsed entirely by the role that we have had to play since september 11. a role that was thrust upon us. american foreign-policy is
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defined by food security, energy security, he monetary assistance, the fight against disease and the push for development. as much as it is by any single counterterrorism initiative. new mexico must be. it is defined by leadership -- and it must be. it is defined by leadership. speaking out for the prisoners in north korea or millions of refugees in displaced persons or victims of human trafficking. it is defined by keeping faith with all of our troops who sacrificed to secure afghanistan. america lives up to her values when we give voice to the voiceless. i share with the president the conviction that it is equally imperative that we assert a new role in the world of increasing failed and failing states.
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burgeoning populations of young people hungry for jobs, opportunity, individual rights, and freedom are rebelling against years of disenfranchisement and humiliation. a fruit vendor in tunisia who ignited the arab awakening want to dignity and respect. he wanted to sell his fruit without corruption and abuse. that is what led him to itself in the late. the youth of tehrir square represented a generational the thirst for opportunity and individual participatory rights of governance, not a religious movement. the developed world counting more to meet the challenge and responsibility of these aspirations. with the help of all the members of this committee, i am
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determined to help president obama meets this moment. the world is well aware that we face a number of immediate danger is challenges, particularly in the middle east and south central asia. given our extraordinary interest in non-proliferation. we must resolve the questions surrounding iran's nuclear program. the president has made a definitive. we will do what we must to prevent iran from obtaining nuclear weapon. i repeat here today -- our policy is not containment. it is prevention and the clock is ticking on our efforts to secure responsible compliance. this administration, working with congress and an unprecedented international coalition, has put into place crippling sanctions on iran. mr. chairman, you have been a leader in that effort.
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president obama has stated again and again -- and i want to emphasize this -- he and i prefer a diplomatic resolution to this challenge. i will work to give -- give diplomacy every effort to succeed. but no one should mistake are resolved to reduce the nuclear threat. nearly 42 years ago, german fulbright first give me the opportunity to testify before this committee during a difficult and divided time for our country. today, i cannot help but recognize that the world itself then was in many ways simpler, divided as it was all long cold war antagonisms. today's world is more complicated than anything we have experienced. from the emergence of china, to the arab awakening, inextricably linked economic, health,
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environmental and demographic issues, proliferation, poverty, pandemic disease, refugees, conflict on going in afghanistan, entire populations and face struggling with the demands of modernity, and the accelerating pace of technological innovation and shifting power from a nation states to individuals. with the end of the cold war, henry kissinger pointed out -- "none of the most important countries which bus building new world order have had any experience with the multistate system that is emerging. denver before has a new world order had to be assembled from so many different perceptions come up or on soul -- or so on -- or on so global a scale. nor has any previous order had to combine the attributes of the historic balance of power system
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with a global democratic opinion and exploiting technology of the contemporary period." that was written in 1994. it may be more relevant today. this is really a time for american leadership, a time for fresh thinking, at a time to cross party lines. a time to find ways to work together to maximize the impact of all of america's resources, including the great resource of this committee and the united states senate. if i am confirmed, one of the first things i intend to do is to sit down with senator men and does an senator corporate and invite all the members of this committee to come together at a time when there is no interruption and weekend do again and talk about it of how we can have a constructive dialogue. even as we pride ourselves in
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the separation of powers and the unique oversight role the committee plays, the challenges in the world are so enormous that we would do our country a disservice if we did not identify the ways it can help each other confronts a unique set of questions globally. if you confirm me, i would take office as secretary prague that the scent is in my blood, but equally proud that so, too, is the foreign service. i father's work under presidents, both democrats and republicans, it took me and my siblings around the world for a personal journey that brought home the sacrifices and the commitment the men and women of the foreign service make every day on behalf of america. i wish everyone in the country could see and understand firsthand the devotion, loyalty, and amazingly hard and
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often dangerous work that our diplomats on the front lines do for our nation. theirs is a service which earns our country an enormous return on our investment. i'll be proud and honored to represent them and i will work hard to augment our public diplomacy so that the story is told at home and abroad. everyone on this committee knows well the road ahead is tough. i believe this is deeply that global leadership is a strategic imperative for america. it is not a favor we do for other countries. it amplifies our voice and extend our reach. it is the key to jobs, the fulcrum of our influence, and it matters. there really matters to the daily lives of americans. it matters that we get this moment right for america and it matters that we get it right for the world. one discussion that i look
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forward to beginning with you, my colleagues, and with our country, is about the commitment that we make in our foreign affairs budget. less than 1% of the entire budget of the government. at a time when the world is getting smaller, our economy depends on its relationship with every other country in the world's comment we face a more global markets at any time in our history. not just in my briefings at the state department, but in my conversations with business leaders and in my trips to crisis areas, to war zones, refugee camps, and in some of the poorest countries on earth, i've been reminded of the importance of the work our state department does to protect and advance america's interests and do the job of diplomacy and a dangerous world. i think there is more that can be done to advance our economic capacity and interest. in this debate and in every
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endeavor, i pledge to work closely with this committee. not just because it will be my responsibility, but because i will not be able to do this job effectively without your involvement and your ideas going forward. thank you, mr. chairman and members of the committee. i know there is a lot of ground to cover. >> [inaudible] [indiscernible] >> when i first came to washington and testified, i was
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testifying as part of a group of people who came here to have their voices heard. that is what this place is about. i think the woman who was voicing her concerns about that part of the world's. senator mccain, you were just there. you were in a refugee camp. people measure what we do. in a way, that is a good exclamation point to my testimony. i know there is a lot of ground to cover. i know we do better but we are having a good dialogue. >> thank you, mr. chairman, for your very thoughtful presentation. we welcome all of the family and we thank you for your commitment as well. obviously, it is a commitment of family as well to the service that senator kerrey will provide as secretary of state -- senator
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kerry will provide a secretary of state. i think we all appreciate and embrace your offer of an engagement. we look forward to that. having come from the senate, i know we will appreciate your understanding of this institution and its importance of the committee. we embrace that offer and look forward to that moment. let me start off with iran. in the last 13 months, congress has signed three major sets of sanctions against iran. they have been tremendously effective in decreasing oil revenues. however, iran remains defiant, entrenched in its nuclear weapons ambitions. it has not slowed its enrichment
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activities. iran is -- has conducted live tests of conventional explosives that could be used to detonate a nuclear weapon, to which it denies iaea entry. iran has more than doubled the number of centrifuges at its facility, which is buried deep inside a mountain. iran claims -- a country with peaceful ambitions does not encourage uranium in defiance of u.n. security council resolutions. it does not fail to disclose its operations or hide inside a mountain. mr. secretary, -- senator -- [laughter] >> i thought this could be
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quick. >> i have a sense of clairvoyance. in this respect, many of the sanctions are overseen by the department of state in terms of enforcement. it is crucial that the enforcement can bring an agreement with iran under your leadership. will the department be committed to the full enforcement of the sanctions passed by the congress and the efforts to ensure the adherence to the other nations by the sanctions? >> yes. it has dropped by about 80%. other nations have been cooperative at reducing their dependence on iranian oil. there is a clear indicator of the impact these are having. the congress deserves credit, together with the administration. >> in that respect, while the president said options are on the table, we hope the sanctions drive us to a
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successful conclusion. what would be the basic parameters efforts in terms of enrichment capacity? what would you seek as part as in the agreement? >> compliance with the requirements of the iaea and the u.n. resolutions that have been passed and compliance with the -- the u.n. resolutions. it would be totally inappropriate for me to began to negotiate with myself and the committee with respect to how they would come into compliance or what would be required. it is gone to be imperative that they come into full compliance and there are several ways and went to we might be able to get there. the president has made it clear that he is prepared to engage in bilateral efforts and hopefully,
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if there is a negotiation going on for the next meeting, everybody is a very hopeful that we can make some progress on the diplomatic front. iran -- i would say this to the iranians, they have continually professed the peacefulness of their program. it is not hard to prove a peaceful program. other nations have done that, and do it every day. it takes intrusive inspections, it takes living up publicly arrived at standards. everybody understands what they are. the allies have made it clear it and that includes a very powerful entities. people who have been supportive
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of iran in other ways at times. china, russia, they have made it clear that we're all united in this standard and that we are looking for the full compliance. the process itself has to flesh out the details. the iranians need to understand that there is no other agenda here. if there program is peaceful, they can prove it. that is what we are seeking. >> let me move to afghanistan. president karzei was here with president obama and they announced a series of agreements that would ultimately, as we move in that transition, we would have the largest civilian mission in the world in afghanistan. can you articulate what you believe the administration's and goals are in afghanistan? what many troops would use to guide our continued presence?
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-- what metrics would do is to guide our continued presence? achieving development goals or will the mission be guided by success in counterterrorism? >> the mission is a twofold mission, mr. chairman. it is to turn over responsibility to the afghan forces, for them to be able to assume responsibility for security, which is slated to begin in earnest in the spring. present karzei move that date up himself and has asked for it to be accelerated. it is the judgment of general allen and others that we are on target to be able to meet that -- meet a more rapid rate of turnover. that would mean our troops in the near term, sometime this
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year, will not be in the lead and will not be the ones taking the brunt of any kind of activities, offensive activities. the second purpose is to maintain a capacity to prevent the kind of terrorism which took us there in the first place. there will be a counterterrorism mission that will continue. president obama has been very clear about the fact that the counterterrorism mission will continue beyond 2014. the training will probably continue beyond 2014. there will be some measure of engagement, but the effort is to have the afghans in the lead, continued training of the forces, and an enduring partnership with afghanistan, and support an afghan-led reconciliation if it is
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possible. obviously, the strategy is to have a sufficient capacity with any ansf that if it is not possible, the government of afghanistan is still sustained. >> finally, the western hemisphere, 2013 will be a year of great change in the western hemisphere, particularly in latin america. the impending change of leadership in venezuela will have a ripple effect on the political and economic effects. the newly elected president of mexico was talking about refocusing his bilateral relationship, emphasizing economic cooperation.
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public security questions throughout the region, the desire of the region to engage in more critical agenda. it would be my hope that upon your confirmation, your leadership with consider more strategic level approaches to the region. taking advantage of changing political tides and opportunities to enhance multilateral efforts on counterterrorism, narcotics trafficking, opening up new markets, and a commitment to our democracy programs throughout the region. can you briefly talk to me about your views and a vision as it relates to what i think is a new and momentous opportunity? >> i agree with you, mr. chairman. it is an opportunity that is staring at us and i hope that we
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can build on what secretary clinton has done. in order to augment our efforts in that region. you've had the initiative working with mexico that has been increased efforts on anti- narcotics, anti violence. there has been the central american security initiative. initiatives with brazil. and energy climate initiatives. but there have been some out liar states that haot as much a part or as cooperative. we all know who they are. depending on what happens in venezuela, there may be an opportunity for trenches in there. i would hope that bolivia, ecuador, we could make progress. one of the great stories of
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latin america is colombia. i remember when working on the western hemisphere subcommittee, there had recently in been an assassination of 13 members of the supreme court in one room in colombia. the presidential candidates were assassinated. you could not run for office. the president stepped up at a critical moment and began the process of rescuing that nation. president santos now is doing an amazing job. we have created a greater economic relationship bypassing the trade agreement. we have to build on that. that is an example for the rest of latin america as to what awaits them if we can induce people to make a better set of choices.
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there are some other things that have contributed to the gap between our relationship with some of those other question -- countries. i would do it and the close consultation with you, mr. chairman, and members of the committee. there are some ways to improve our efforts in latin america. >> thank you. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i was touched by your opening comments. i think you have led a life that brought you to this moment. i am happy for you that you will be able to express yourself in this way as secretary of state and for your family. i am thrilled that you are in a position i know you have long for and think you can make a major difference.
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i ask you -- as ked you 73 questions in advance. thank you for your diligence. i know it took a lot of time. the president has nominated someone for secretary of defense. we all will meet with him and his hearing will be next week he was part of a group called global 0. for those that care about our nuclear arsenal, some of the things that brought offered in this report are disconcerting. typically, the defense department presses for weaponry and making our country is safe. the state department presses for nuclear arms agreements and reductions.
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in the event this person is confirmed, that balance will not be there. you and i spent a lot of time on the treaty. involved inbe the ratification. i am wondering if there is something you might say to me in that sees our future in a way with that combination of these two people, something you can say to assure me about our nuclear posture in the future and the role he will play in that regard theory >> absolutely. -- in that regard. >> absolutely. i know chuck hagel.
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i think he is a strong, patriotic former senator and he will be a strong secretary of defense. i have dealt with him and and number of forays. he has been head of the atlantic council, some of the things and efforts to color senator hagel's approach on some of these things cannot do justice. i am going to come to it. i think it is important to think about it. when that initiative came out and we began to hear about the people who said let's get no nuclear-weapons, i scratch my head. i said how is that going to work? i find it hard to think how youn
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today's world. henry kissinger, jim baker, james schlesinger, many others have all agreed with that as a goal for the world. it is an aspiration. we should always be aspirational. but it is not something that can happen in today's world nor could any leader today sit here or in any other chair and promote the notion that we should be cutting down our deterrent levels before inadequate levels to maintain deterrence. the military has strong views about what that is. we have cut down some 1500 now. there is talk of going down to a lower number. i think it is possible to get their, if you have commensurate levels of inspections,
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verification, and guarantees about the capacity of your nuclear stockpile program. i know you are deeply invested in that component. clicking come to some of that may be later in the hearing. i believe we have to maintain that. -- we can et to some of that may be later in the hearing. i believe we have to maintain that. hegel ishink senator sitting there or will go to the defense department and be a proponent. this is talking about conflict resolution, changes that have to take place the that the society's -- societies. it is worth aspiring to.
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and we are lucky if we will get there in however many centuries the way we are going. >> i appreciate your opening comments about the issues we face. for a moment i wished you were nominated for secretary of treasury. i do appreciate those comments and the ones you just made. you have been a senator for 29 years. the president was under your tutelage when he came in as a junior member of this committee. >> i think he would object to being under anybody's tutelage. >> i will let him call and object. i will just say you have strong opinions, heartfelt feelings about what we should be doing as a nation but that the foreign relations. in the meetings you have sat together, secretary clinton alluded to differences she had as it relates to north africa
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and how we deal with al qaeda. have you been able to talk through some of those issues? what has been the relationship? do you see any major differences in your view of the world and the once the president has laid out? >> the president has purposefully and i have purposely kept away from any deep discussions during the nominating process, partly because he had not time, and i have not had time. we do intend to sit down next week. i look forward to having that conversation with him. >> you spent a lot time with assad in syria, as many of us have from time to time. you tried to move him more towards western alliance. i know he saw himself as that bridge between iran and thus -- and us.
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things have taken a different turn to that time. was there anything about those negotiations or discussions and yet taken away -- that you have taken away, that will inform you as you move ahead? >> the answer is yes. sort of reinforces the notion that sometimes there are moments when you may be able to get something done in foreign policy and it is a moment some how can that does not get a seat, you miss major opportunities -- does not get seized, you miss major opportunities. president assad said to me i have five front thousand kids who turned 18 every year. and i do not have a place to cut them. i did not have jobs for them.
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i need to change what is happening here. clearly thinking down the road, he wanted to find some way to reach out to the west and see if there was some kind of accommodation. history caught up to us. that never happened. and it is now moot because he has made a said the judgment that are inexcusable -- made a judgments that are inexcusable. the time is ticking. comments of thee special envoy of russia who said it seems the opposition was moving and we have seen the exodus of a certain number of russians lifted out of syria. i did the process is moving in a way that now makes that age and history -- i think the process
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is moving in a way that now makes that ancient history. >> thank you free answers here and your interest in advance. i need your confirmation will be speedy. i look forward to having the same relationship we have had in the past. i may call you sir in the future. thank you for being here and taking this responsibility. >> thank you very much fear you have been a gentleman in all our dealings and candid. i appreciate that. -- thankyo you very much. you have been a gentleman in all of our dealings and candid. i appreciate that. >> i sat near you in a couple of
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committees. commerce committee, many years. i have worked with you on climate issues, women's issues. i just feel you are the right person for this moment. many foreign policy experts and historians have written that the low and the sad status of women around the world is hurting entire regions of the world to achieving democracy and economic growth. you have covered a lot of ground in your opening statement you did not get into this area which is of concern to a number of us here so i have a couple of questions on that. the state department has saw to protect the rights of women and girls in afghanistan, to end the use of rape as a weapon of war in the cond -- in the congo
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and to ensure women play a meaningful role as new government's and political structures take shape in the middle east and north africa. if confirmed, will you ensure that the position of ambassador at large for global women's issues is retained and that office is effectively resources? >> yes. >> senator andrew and i wrote a bill to expand its college soccer -- scholarship opportunities for women to the afghanistan. we dedicated this bill to mulala. we call for an expanded college a program in pakistan for disadvantaged young women. i know you have not seen the legislation. would you commit to me to work
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with us and if you think it is well done, it did meet your standards, would you help us getting into here? >> absolutely. let me just say that secretary clinton and her appointee have done and that standing job. -- an outstanding job. i have made a priority on the committee. you chair a subcommittee that includes women's issues under that. we had a trafficking hearing. which i thought broke new ground. secretary clinton has put a serious focus in this department on human trafficking.
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i intend to continue that. what you're talking about with respect to women and girls in south africa, guatemala, other parts of the world, women have stepped up as peacemakers. women have made the difference in many of these instances with respect to the security of those communities. the attitude of the state, its willingness to reach out of it went to afghanistan, -- to reach out. when we went to afghanistan, there were several thousand kids in school and no growth. today, there are 9 million kids in school and pick% are greuel. >> the reason i pressed specifics is to send a message to these women and girls around
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the world that it will not be forgotten. they will not be forgotten. insuring women are at the table at the peace process. it sounds simple but i have met with many women from afghanistan who are devastated that there are not enough women sitting at the table. you have made the point that women in many of these places are the peacemakers. i am asking if you intend to commit to the continued implementation of a national action plan on women, peace, and security. >> i did. i read last night that president obama issued to that.
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i think it is important. with respect to afghanistan, the administration has made it clear -- the commitment that if there is in negotiation with the taliban, one of the conditions is they have to give up any association with al qaeda. with respect to this issue, they must commit to respect the constitution of afghanistan and the current status of women and girls within their society. >> you have been a supporter of the convention to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. it is a tough issue. i want to make sure you continue to support the ratification. >> the answer is yes. i look forward to meeting with the committee probably so we can
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talk about treaties and america's interest. >> i think there could be some reservation that we could agree on that would resolve some of the underlying current of this agreement. we should move forward on that. last question is about the keystone xl pipeline. how would you ensure any decision takes into consideration the potential impact on water and air quality and mitigates any increases in the carbon pollution issue? >> there is a statutory process with respect to the review of the fall to the state department and elsewhere. that is currently ongoing. i have already checked into it. it is under way. it will not long before that comes across my desk.
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at that time, i will make the appropriate judgments. we are responsible for the environmental review. there are specific standards that have to be met. i will review them to make sure they are complete. >> thank you. thank you so much, mr. chairman. and say how much of the court -- how much i look forward to casting. the casting >> thank you. >> i want you to be assured that vicki and i will care for your idaho property when you're out traveling. >> liu come with the property if
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i come back -- will you , the property if i come back? [laughter] >> we'll see. i want to talk about the relationship with russia and the arms control agreement we have had. you made a statement that he would not be able to come before this committee and recommend new arms control measures until compliance and verification issues regarding existing agreements were fully settled. we have sat through some classified briefings. i did not want to get into details we should i get into but i would like your thoughts on where we are regarding compliance and verification. >> senator, i appreciate your
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concern about this. we have had a lot of conversations with the ranking member and senator kyle. -- kyl. it is fair to say we have made significant progress towards a full funding of the money that was committed. i think it was about $85 million over 10 years. i went and reviewed the amount of money that is now scheduled over the 10 years. it is slightly below that. but it is not way below it. there is no undermining of the fundamentals of the commitment. and there is a 5% increase this year over last year and probably
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one of the few parts of the budget that has grown. the think it was about $6 billion last year. the first year, and have the full amount of funding than the next year, and fell off by about .2 course something to that effect. in the outgoing years, it is slightly below where it was but the folks involved say this is a in no way diminishing our stockpile efficiency. i think we're on track. what we need to do is sit down with the budget folks and work through what will happen here. what i want to emphasize -- it is important for any
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administration to keep faith with the commitments it makes to senators, particularly in the course of an agreement to a treaty. i do not think we are so far off that any senator could sit there and say someone has not kept faith. it was also an agreement in their should be negotiations with this respect to the production of tactical nuclear weapons. that dialogue is taking place. hopefully we can get the relationship with russia back to replace -- to a place. it would be naive of me to sit here and not acknowledge to my colleagues that slid backwards a
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bit in the last couple years. with the most recent decision of russia with respect to adoptions, we have some ground to try to make up. what i do not want to do is prejudice that possibility here today or in the next days. i would like to see if we can find some way to cooperate. we need their help with respect to syria. russia has held on a number of different things that are critical to us. people should not overlook them. the day cooperate on the treaty itself -- they did cooperate on the treaty itself and the p5 plus one. they have cooperated on the sanctions and with respect to the pntr trade and wto.
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it is fair to say everybody here knows they warned us and said if you do x, y, or z, we may respond and we have gotten into that back-and-forth. we will have to work our way through it. i look forward to working with you. >> i appreciate your candor on the acknowledgement of slippage. having been a member of this committee, i know you have a deep appreciation for the constitutional process. there are a lot of us that are increasingly concerned about this talk regarding executive agreements as opposed to treaties negotiated by the executive branch. can you give us your view on matters regarding executive agreements? >> every administration is
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history. republican and democrat alike have entered into executive agreements. >> you agree the better process would be to submit to this committee first? >> of what it depends on the subject matter and the scope and whether or not it falls under a or anional traty oeaty executive agreement purview. i'm confident the president is committed to upholding the constitution. there is no better way to guarantee that whatever concerns you have about the president's desire to move on an executive agreement would be greatly
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nullified or mollified if we could find a way to cooperate on a treaty or on the broader issues that face the nation tarif. there is a lot of frustration out there, that some of the restraints that prevented the majority from being able to express their voice is restrain people can push people and in a way to consider other ways to get things done. >> that is what concerns us. the fact that it is ok to do this through the regular order if it gets done to rebut and then the ends justify the means. i feel strongly that that is not the appropriate way to do it. the founding fathers did not they do this if it is not convenient.
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>> i would agree with you. i am not suggesting that is the standard. what am suggesting -- there are times around here when in recent days only, where certain arguments that are not necessarily based either on fact or science or anything except point of view of some outside entity, have prevented certain things from being able to be done to . i think what we should do is sit down and have a discussion about what the facts are. see if we could arrive to agree there is some truth about something. if there is some jurors, may be -- there is some truth, maybe
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there is a way for us to do it. i understand the frustration that leads people to think about it. i will comment on it when it is relevant in any particular instance. >> it is been a pleasure to serve with you in the united states senate. thank you your extraordinary record of public service and military days to service here in the senate. i remember your chairmanship of the small business committee. the same energy brought to the chairmanship of this committee, you brought to small businesses. i applaud you for your willingness to continue to serve our nation.
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>> i am taking it for the red sox, i am taking it for the patriots. if it is a standard here which team you root for, i am screwed. >> you will have to show some of your diplomacy here. secretary clinton confidant and integration of our national security bastion. recognizing that they are interrelated and to our national security needs. if we are going to have a country reliable -- that is reliable, we need a sustainable economy. the country need to respect the human rights of its citizens. that has been the hallmark of what we tried to move forward. american interests are not
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served by giving aid to a country where that money is used to funnel correct leaders carried -- corrupt leaders. we recognize the importance of investment on human-rights issues. i appreciate the comment he made a dent in your opening statements concerning this -- the comments you made in your opening statements concerning this. the gender equity issues.
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advanced american values and human rights on a bilateral and multilateral basis. from protecting children where traffic to dealing with gender issues, these are important for national security. i would like to give you an opportunity to express your party for these issues. >> let me begin by expressing my respect for your leadership on the helsinki commission. we have done as much if not more than any chairman i can remember on our committee. i think you have been just super but that the year -- superb in your division. i appreciate it.
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we are the indispensable nation with respect to this. the levels of corruption in some places has grown beyond anything i've seen in the 29 years -- in 29 years. i'm troubled in terms of what it means for people's rights and abilities in countries. there is not any continent that does not see some kind of issue with respect to that. i think the united states has a fundamental obligation that comes from the definition of who we are as a nation. it comes mar on struggles to keep faith with -- it comes from our own struggles.
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we're finding different efforts in parts of the world. we are doing things that make a difference with respect to o those -- t rights. there have been obvious problems with our relationship of the past. committee did some superb work putting out a report last year with respect to that. >> i appreciate that. you had a discussion on russia.
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we have seen some slippage since the breakup of the cold war ending. you mentioned kissinger's comment. we have seen slippage in russia with their human-rights hopper tensions. -- with their human rights ten sions. slippage of in the ukraine with imprisoning their opposition. our relationship to other countries can be mature enough where we can build strong alliances but still raise critical concerns, particularly if they violate commitment they made.
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we will make a high priority to their commitment to live up to the basic human rights of their citizens. >> i have occasionally wrestled with that when we have a primary objective and try to get that done but i have never hesitated in any visit to raise human- rights concerns. i will continue to do that as an esoteric clinton has. >> let me mention, you mention darfur. the crisis was so severe. we still have concerns in the southern and blue nile. burma, there has not been any progress made. i hope you will make these areas where there are humanitarian
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crises a highest priority to protect the safety of the people that lived in these areas. >> i will and i intend to do that. the president will continue to -- with an appointment of a special ambassador to sudan. i was there myself during the course of the referendum on the independence. i have met with president many times. and people underneath bashir i. my hope is that we can get the status or components of the cpa that were not fulfilled finally fulfilled. glued nile -- blue nile -- the
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bombing, starvation taking place, the data some ways, darfur has slipped back words. they need to be held accountable. this also needs to show greater determination and better government. we have our work cut out for us with respect to both. i promise you it will remain a focus. >> thank you. >> senator rubio progress thank you. senator, congratulations on your nomination. we're having this debate to do this country between -- we cannot solve every problem in the world. no single nation can afford it. on the other hand, america is indispensable to foreign policy. the world is a dangerous place when america is not leading. the fundamental issues that
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confront the world today require college and of nations to confront it. the only nation on earth that confirm these coalitions and lead them is us. it is not the united nations or any of these multilateral organizations. the central issue of foreign policy today is his talent between making sure we're not trying to do more than the canned and ensuring we are not doing less than we should trigger the constantly is the debate on foreign aid. and there has been the perception created the foreign aid is 28% of our budget when it is a very small percentage. our foreign aid has to make sense. we need to make sure it is furthering our national interests. but i hope he would help me with -- you alluded to president obama's vision for the world.
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i have struggled to understand without vision is. russia has been mentioned. the situation has deteriorated there. but what to recapture some the cold war statute -- after they had to recall the best way is to be confrontational with us. the u.s., once we got involved, and got involved than the early stages then turned the rest of it over to our allies who cannot have the capability to bring the conflict to a quick conclusion and as a result created a weak government. we repeated that in this area -- in syria. france, and was
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in our national interest to help an opposition foreman organize itself. we have been so disorganized in syria that now we are at a time where the opposition, when they win, are just as angry at us as they once were with russia and other nations. we go to latin america where in 2009 the and minish fishing condemned what happened in honduras -- the administration condemned what happened at the the honduras. -- in honduras. we move to the middle east where israel has been concerned. there were more focused on the palestinian issue but as the biggest issue in the middle east.
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iran, the people took to the streets as the defense of the principles we say we stand for and the president says we will not interfere in their sovereignty. that demoralized opposition. north korea announced they are developing in weapon that can reach united states. i think the bush administration was wrong to remove north korea from the list of states alters of terrorism. i hope we will reverse that. china and the conflict going on throughout the region during china is increasingly aggressive about their territorial claims. in their neighbors are looking to the united states as a counterbalance. a -- if the sequester goes through, what are we going to pivot with? these are the fundamental issues we face. as you sit with the president and help him form a vision for the world, what advice are you
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going to give him in the terms of what our role should be? >> that is a very broad and comprehensive question. >> you have two minutes to answer it. siti could say to you let's down and talk about it and will get together and go through it but let me give -- i want to do that, but let me say a few things to you about this. as you know, there was a debate in congress about whether or not anything should have been done in libya. the president moved and decided he was going to become engaged to nato in ways that met our interests at the time it got the job done.
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i thought it was smart. the way he approached that was very effective and the results were exactly what we wanted to cheat. we could tell if we did this -- results were exactly what we wanted to achieve. i think the american people approved of the way that was handled. the aftermath of all of these places, we need to spend some time on this. there is a monumental transformation taking place. this is the biggest upheaval of the bill that part of the world since the ottoman empire. --y of the country's
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countries lines were drawn in relatively arbitrary ways. it is a highly sectarian, divided, tribal part of the world. i am not sure every policy has always been as sensitive or thoughtful about that as it ought to be. >> i want to clarify. on my state about libya, i was not suggesting the u.s. should have invaded. we did -- have we extended that, the, that and it sooner. a shorter conflict would have led to a government that would have been stronger. >> honestly, it might have toward might not have. -- might have or it might not
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have. gadhafi cut deals with all the tribes. they created their peers a power structure which is the reason you had a revolution. the religionm -- revolution saw to give people more time in chains. it will take time. it took us a while. to the constitution, all we would do a lot of people, including a civil war. we need to be awful about the history and culture and nature of the places we are dealing with -- we need to be thoughtful about the history and culture and nature of the places we are dealing with.
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all i am advocating for it to be thoughtful about this. there is a struggle going on for the mines -- minds of people into many parts of the world. i think we can do a better job of galvanizing people around the values and ideas we have organized ourselves around. we have to do it in a lot of giveaways. i did not have all the answers to this but there is any media, there are alternative means of communication bringing people together. there are other avenues. i was privileged to speak daniell a couple years ago where there were 68 -- to speak at
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yale a couple years ago where there were 68 people came and 68 evangelical their -- there. this meeting tried to find the commonality of the abrahams. those of the kinds of things we need to explore. we cannot afford high diplomacy defined by troops or drones or confrontation. we have to define the thomas say that she's -- the diplomacy that achieves understanding through other kinds of initiatives. we will all have to face this. egypt is a quarter of the arab world.
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it is critical to everything we aspire to see happen within the middle east. protection of sinai, security, the development of that part of the world with respect to an economy that is open and competitive and based on rule of law. how are we going to do that? when you have 60% of the population under 30. 50% is under the age of 21. and it is growing. if they did not find jobs, if they deny get educated, if we do not do something, all of us at the end of the developed world, including china, russia, south korea, brazil, mexico, those developed countries that have
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the capacity will have to come together and about this. everybody is affected. i think that is a challenge for all of us. that is my response to a very big question that is a legitimate questions. we ought to sit down and work on this over the days ahead. >> thank you, mr. chairman. senator kerry tom hines thrilled to be here -- senator kerry, i am in built to be here. i cannot think of anyone better to continue the efforts of the current administration. thank you for being willing to take on this task. that may well in your family -- let me welcome your family. let me just say i look forward to casting level -- casting my
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vote in support of u.s. secretary of state and the also join the in defending the red sox and the patriots. >> finally. thank you. >> i want to echo the concern about continuing to support an agenda that urges equal rights and opportunities for women around the world. i think about if we had a situation in many of the conflict areas we are facing now where women share the same equality and opportunity that the men do in those areas, that we would be facing a very different challenge. i also want to go back. you mentioned syria and being in what appears to be the final period of assad rule. one of the issues we're facing
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there is what happened to the chemical weapons should assad fall. yesterday at the hearing on bank gotti, there was -- at the hearing on benghazi, there were references to the weapons that have now fallen into the hands of terrorists in africa. when i ask in general about this issue, he suggested it will require an international effort to secure these weapons when assad falls. i wonder if you could talk about how you view that international effort coming together and what role the secretary of state should play in that. isthe president's policy that if we have evidence they
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have used or are using them or about to use them, if they lose control over them or move them in any some of it away, that will change the calculation. the administration is drawing up plans am working with neighbors in the region. i cannot go into those today because i'm not read in on them yet. i just know that they are making them and they are deeply concerned about it. >> should we feel some confidence that russia and china might join in to an international effort on chemical weapons? should there be concerned about what happens to those weapons? >> i just do not know about the details of the plants. i do know they have expressed public concerns about that.
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there were conversations with the russians with the first indicators took place about potential of movement. the russians apparently were deeply concerned and they also weighed in at that time. there is serious concern everywhere that those weapons not fall into the wrong hand chris christie mention the work you did as the chair of the small business committee -- you mentioned the word treated as the chair of the small business committee. we have tried to promote business advocacy abroad. i led a trade mission to india about a year and a half ago with businesses from new hampshire. it talked about how important a was to have the support atoms officials in india as they were looking to establish those
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business relationships. can you talk about how you might continue that i commit this is something he would be focused on? >> i think for a policy is increasingly economic policy upheld -- i think foreign policy is increasingly economic policy. the state department historically used to have a foreign commercial service. in 1979, it slipped away. i think that's something we ought to be doing in a very pertinent to get away. obviously working with the treasury, agriculture. ag has enormous amount of interest abroad. the congress department does, the treasury department does.
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there is much more we can do to augment our indeed with the private sector and their desires and needs abroad. when i was in hong kong and number of years ago, i met with foreign commercial service people there. we had 3 people there and they said they were overwhelmed. they have no ability to be able o marry rsb's from china to companies commensurate with much smaller countries. others were much more aggressive in their promotion of their companies. that is the world we're living in today. we have to be much more aggressive in of that respect. i view it as investing. it returns on an vestment many times over. -- on investment many times over. i want to get in and i think
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there is a lot we can do. >> thank you. but western balkans, with some much conflict gone across the middle east and northern africa, we forget we were involved in the conflict in the western balkans. there had been tremendous progress that has been made in that area but we are still -- but we still have a stalemate over a domestic donna -- over in macedona, we still have a country that aspire to ascendancy in the eu. progress there will continue american leadership. i hope we will continue to work again to the region to ensure they continue to make progress. >> we will, senator.
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thank you for your leadership of the european foreign subcommittee. i look forward to working with a. >> senator kerry, i appreciate your thoughtful opening statement in response to these questions. i have a great deal of respect for your level of experience. i would've enjoyed working with you as a member of the committee. i will enjoy working with you as secretary of state. these are complex issues, these are dangerous times. i grew up helping politics at the water's edge and was true. i believe we share the same goals. we want a secure, prosperous america. i think that starts being open and honest with each other.
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i hate to go back to yesterday's news and by yesterday when i was asking a relatively simple question, secretary clinton's reaction was i think it makes a big difference. i think it matters a great deal at the american people get the truth. i think they have the right to be told the truth. i think they have the right to know what happens. it makes a big difference whether or not the american people have the confidence that the president and the administration is being truthful with them. so, i guess, my question is, do you agree -- do you agree with hillary clinton after is today's
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news, let's move on? >> if you are trying to get some daylight between me and secretary clinton, that is not going to happen here today on that score. i think you are talking past each other. i do not think that was the question. if your question is, should the american people did the truth and as a matter, hillary clinton would say, yes. and i say, yes. i think she was referring to the question, the sequencing and the timing of how particular affirmation came in with respect -- information came in with respect to talking points that was made. how you saw that versus how she saw that. >> the. i was making is we could have avoided all of this controversy
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by making a couple of phone calls. let me ask you, as chairman of the foreign relations committee, did you make any phone calls to the the evacuees? >> early on. i do not want to go back and relitigate the events that took place. yes, i made phone calls. i was in constant touch with the state department. we were involved in what was happening. >> how soon did you know there were no protests. it is pretty obvious from the accountability report, there prado protests. did you know immediately? >> -- there were no protests. did you know immediately? >> i was told there were no protests in enghazi but there
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were in the -- >> is there a reason we would not have the department of state officials testifying before us so we can find out who knew what when? to actually get to the bottom of that? >> there is no reason down the road i would assume. but for the moment i know there is an fbi investigation going on because i personally called the fbi director and was told they are making progress and that some things may or may not be right to take place. >> so we can get that behind us and find out what actually happened, that we can move on beyond that, can you make that commitment to me? >> in all fairness, i think we do know what happened.
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were you at the briefing with the tapes? >> no. >> there was a briefing with tapes that we all saw, those of us who went to it that made it crystal clear. we sat for several hours with our intel people to describe exactly what we were seeing. we saw all of the events unfold. we have a complete detailed description. >> we know what happened in been gauzy -- in benghazi because we have the reports. i am making sure that you work with me so we can find out what the administration knew. >> i do not want the american people left with this impression. would you say why we were misled. that implies an intent to mislead you. i think there was a description of a variants and talking points. i do not know why that happens, but there was a description of that.
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>> can you help us get to the bottom of why that happen? >> the state department will continue to cooperate as it has in every respect to any request of this committee. any committee of relevant jurisdiction. >> i just want to go back -- you said foreign policy -- we do not have the luxury of deciding if we want to compete in a global economy. maybe you should have been up for an economic position here. will you utilize your position as secretary of state to try and get the president to work with us to solve the debt and deficit issue? this is a matter of prioritizing and spending? i do not think we can continue to tax the american economy. it is about prioritizing spending. i am a fiscal conservative it.
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we have to get our spending under control. will you utilize your position to encourage the president to work with us and good faith to solve the debt and deficit issue? >> i spent six months or five months as a member of the super committee. i put an enormous amount of energy and help that we would be able to get the big bargain, granted deal. i am not here to go through all the details what we did not. there was a very hard line, not negotiating position that prevented us from being able to come to an agreement which, incidentally, she we just came to. we can do it with far less on the table and far less accomplished that we would have if we can to the agreement six months ago or one year ago. my hope is, yes, i will weigh in on that to a degree that it has an impact on my ability to do my job and the ability of the state department to do its job.
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we cannot reduce the funding for some of these initiatives that we are engaged in without great cost to our ability to be able to help american business, help create jobs, and help create -- help strengthen our security in the world. it is in my interest to get the budget deficit resolved. i will weigh in with anyone who will listen. it requires some compromise and reasonableness on everybody's fault. >> i look forward to working with you. thanks. >> i want to thank chairman mendez for chairing this committee and express my strong support of senator john carry for your nomination. welcome and thank you for all you have done in your service to our country.
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i have deeply enjoyed serving under you hear on the foreign relations committee last two years as i chaired the africa subcommittee in had the opportunity to watch as you have led the ratification of the new treaty, as you intervened to solve a diplomatic crises in different places. i really look forward to working with you on some of the challenging issues that face the country and the world. let me start by referring back to something a number of senators have referred to -- your opening statement. use of foreign policy more than ever is economic policy. i just want to say i have been deeply encouraged to your response to senator rubio's questions. africa is a continent that holds the enormous confidence and were sadly our foreign service is
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under represented in our opportunity to advocate for american business and of values and needs and deserves more attention. i chaired two hearings and i am about to come out with a report from the subcommittee. how do you see us successfully competing with china, which has a rapidly growing footprint across africa in both economic opportunities and our different values agenda? what difference does that make going forward? >> i want to begin by thanking you. i say to all the members of the committee, one of the pleasures of having been chairman of the committee is watching individual senators kind of pick their targets and go after them. senator isaacson is not on the committee anymore, but they were a terrific team with respect to africa. i know senator mccain just an
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important trip. he was a in cairo and also in afghanistan. i just met with members of that trip. it was a bipartisan trip. senator mccain, lindsey gramm, and the white house and blumenthal. that kind of report and that kind of intervention has an impact. i know already from reports that what you did have an impact with president morrissesi. i challenge you to help engage in what senator has done. with respect to china. china is all over africa. i mean, all over africa. they are buying up long-term contracts on minerals, and you name it. there are some places we are not
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in the game. i hate to say it. we have to get in it. but it takes a little bit of resource and. somebody is paying for those people to be over there and somebody is investing in their investment of time. we have to be prepared. i think what we bring to the table is, frankly, a lot more attractive than what a lot of other countries bring to the table. people like to do business with american businesses. we are open, accountable, freedom of creativity. i think that if we can organize ourselves more effectively in this sector, we can win. i do not mean win in terms of cold war terms, i mean win in terms of business contracts, opportunities, jobs for americans, the ability to export, in port, all of these things and make a difference to
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with the average american pays for the goods that they use in everyday life. i think there is a lot of opportunity, and i look forward to working with you to develop it. >> you mentioned earlier there are 3 in hong kong. there are only 10 on the entire continent in africa. it would be great to work with you. we have also worked before on the issue of poaching in the tragedy of wildlife killed across the continent that helps finance transnational criminal and terrorist networks. that is an area we need to stand up and challenge to china on being the largest market to a lot of the a legal product. on the trip i took with senator mccain and the others, we visited a refugee camp and heard a very sharp feedback on their perception that the humanitarian aid we have provided so far, more than $200 million we have provided has not reached the people on the ground.
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it has gone through damascus but not through the syrian opposition council. what would you do as secretary to ensure that we are more effectively and visibly engaged in supporting the opposition we have recognized? >> in supporting the opposition in -- >> syria. >> there is a discussion going on right now about other kinds of possibilities. i know senator mccain cares about it and i have offered to sit down with him and others and work this through. i think senator whitehouse asked to have some people talk about this. we need to change assad's calculation. right now president assad does not think he is losing, and the opposition thinks it is winning.
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that is not any question that allows you to reach some accommodation for transition. the goal of the obama administration, the goal of the international community is to effect some kind of orderly transition. it is complicated by the fact that now second to envoy has been engaged, and both have found entrances on the part of the opposition to be able to negotiate a departure. the russians have indicated, i have had personal conversations prior to being secretary, that indicated a russian willingness to see president assad leave, but they have a different sense of the timing of that. my hope would be if confirmed in
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when i get in there that i would have an ability to really take the temperature of these different players and get a sense of sort of where it is. but we have to increase, i think, the ability of the opposition -- strike that. we have to increase the readiness of president assad to see the handwriting on the wall, to be able to make the judgment here that will save lives and hold the state together in a transition period >> thank you. if i might in closing, these diplomatic efforts need to continue, but we also face a very narrow window to make a difference on the ground in support of the opposition. i will follow up -- >> i hear you. i understand what you are saying. you do not want to wind up with a bleeding you.
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you also need to have some understanding, which i do not think is clear yet, of what what -- what does step one bring you. what is step two or three. there is not a presence of that right now with al qaeda from iraq. what i commit to do is sit with you as much as possible. let's sit iwth the administration and see hwo these equations work though as we go forward. >> i am grateful for your willingness to step up and take on this role and i look forward to voting in support of your confirmation. >> thank you. thank you secretary kennedy. i had an opportunity to travel a few times over seas with you. i have seen this regard and respect officials have for you in other countries and your record and what you have done.
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i appreciate that and think you are well suited obviously for this position. let me just mention, what item briefly and ask a few questions. i fell differently than some of my other colleagues that the best way to foster change and progress toward democracy is to allow travel -- free travel of americans, to let them go as they wish. i do not think that is a weakness or any capitulation at all. i think it is a way to show strength. i have often felt that if we want a real get-tough policy with the castro brothers we should force them to deal with spring break once in a while. in all seriousness, this president has taken measures to allow more americans to travel freely, relative's travel for religious, cultural and education purposes. i think that is a good thing.
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i hope you will find a way to continue that and find more innovative ways to deal with change. the pa was granted in 2011 and 2012, full membership by the general assembly. that in my view, and i think all of ours is an impediment to real negotiations that have to happen. the general assembly has a habit of doing this over the years and decades. we all remember a in the 1970's they did it -- the said the -- they had designated one of the parties as the sole and authentic representative of the people. that did nothing but delay meaningful negotiations between the parties that needed to happen. from your position at the state department, to what measures will you take to ensure that our position and the congress's
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position is to deny funding to some of these un organs of such recognition is made? i know there is some wiggle room in the administration to deal with that. what is your position in that regard? how can you make sure that the interests are carried forward? >> let me say that categorically, i think the administration made this clear in its vote in public statements that we do not feel that unilateral steps are helpful on either side. they are not a substitute for the parties negotiating in resolving the issues. with respect to some of the funding on the the collateral memberships, if you will, they are not a full member. we have found that we are better able to actually protect against nefarious activity, and
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some resolutions that attack israel, we are better able to negated if we are participating and if we cease to pay the dues, then we see -- will lose the opportunity to protect our friends, which want to have it. i will emphasize that they are line thatlose to a lio would be very damaging. if there is any effort to invoke any other power, that is the unilateral action we would feel strongly against an see it as extremely counterproductive. my hope is, there were just elections yesterday, we do not know what kind of government will be formed or where things will go, but my prayer is that
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perhaps this will be a moment where we can reduce some kind of effort to get the parties into a discussion to have a different track and we have been on over the past couple of years. i would like to reserve all of the capacity to be able to do that. i will stop where -- what i have said. unilateral efforts are not helpful. we oppose them. we do not think -- i do not think they are symbolic or other efforts are what we need. we need real negotiation and real results. any progress. thank you. >> two weeks ago some of us return from afghanistan. he described it well about the progress being made to the afghan security forces to take over. if we take a back and look at iraq, some of us traveled there
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a couple of years before that conflict ended there. we saw some of the building that planning for aat, more robust world and we have. i am wondering, what are we doing to ensure we do not do the same thing in afghanistan? what lessons are we learning from iraq? we over bill to there. when taxpayers see that kind of what can we do-- -- some of it is outside of your purview, but what can we do to ensure that whatever presence we have -- and i hope we do have an agreement to go on to carry out the missions that you outlined -- but what are we doing to make
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sure it is right size? >> that is a very good question. the state department has a specific law, a transition group that has drawn the lessons from iraq. it comes out of that experience. it is applying them to this transitional effort in afghanistan now. i am not sure with everything they have dug into. i know they are doing it. i know it exists. i think people are thinking very hard right now about what size footprint ought to exist. let me make it clear that i think we have about 1000- something personnel in the embassy and iraq still. slightly less than 4000 contractors in iraq still.
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that is a pretty big footprint, post war periodin afghanistan, we are pretty large. i intend to look at that closely, partly because there are deep security concerns that we understand post-benghazi and also because there is a question of what kind of foot prints you want in the aftermath. i can assure you a lot of qualified people who went through the iraq experience and they are taking the lessons and applying them to hear in afghanistan. he also assure at a future hearing down the road, we will dig into that a little more. >> great to see you in this capacity, what is really the threshold of a new chapter of your life of service. we are very happy to see you here today. i will not congratulate you, because we are still in the
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process, but i think that will be forthcoming. you are my constituent, theresa. if you need something, i hope you call us. >> she needs a vote for me. >> i think that will be forthcoming. a couple of issues i wanted to focus on two places with three questions. one is afghanistan, the second is pakistan. i wanted to ask you about -- the first question relates to president carter's i and the elections ahead of them. -- president karzai and the elections ahead of him. i had a chance to visit him with senator mcconnell and senator mccain. i asked him about the elections.
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i wanted to get your sense of where you see the elections go in, what efforts you can undertake to make sure they are free and fair because they become central to the next chapter in this transition. the second question as it relates to afghanistan is one that senator boxer raised. her work on this has been exemplary. an amendment we got through the national defense authorization act which would require state and defense to file a report on the efforts to promote to the security of afghan women and girls to us by way of ionization, monitoring and responding to changes in women security. secondly, improving gender sensitivity and responsiveness among the afghan security forces and increasing the recruitment and retention of women in the afghan security forces. both with regard to the election
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and women and girls. >> with respect to the women and girls, i had a conversation with senator boxer earlier and i committed to the ongoing significant efforts that secretary clinton has invest -- invested in. we will continue to have the ambassador and special office within the state department. more importantly, we think that there cannot be any effective piece, and there will not be in afghanistan if we cannot hold onto the gains and continue them -- continue the progress made with respect to women's participation. we remain committed to that. i will work in every way possible to augment -- the number of people who have made
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suggestions to me, i will not go into them now because of time, they are exciting. there are people who want to be involved in this endeavor. they have been inspired by secretary clinton has done. she has been the ambassador in that role. we will continue to do that. on the elections, there is a group within the american initiative within our efforts in afghanistan working very hard on the rules of the road for the election and working with the afghan commission. they are working right now on some of the computer programming and other things that are necessary to be able to guarantee that the voting lists are up and accurate and available. there have been meetings with potential candidates for president with the opposition faults and others in afghanistan in an effort to be inclusive anin the process.
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i have said it publicly and a conference andkabul and here -- having acceptable elections -- it would not be perfect. having an election that passes muster and is acceptable according to the observers and standards will be critical to our ability to have the kind of transition we want to have and to have confidence that the government that succeeds in 2014 has legitimacy. if it does not have legitimacy, if we do not succeed in in that effort, it will be difficult to convince the american people and convince our allies to stay engaged in this effort if they
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are not willing to provide for themselves with respect to that. i went through this personally with president karzai in the last election were there were serious questions about the propriety and process. we have to strike a compromise about it. i do not think there will be room for a compromise in the aftermath. i will make sure that we are staying very very close on it. >> with respect to the difficult challenge we have with the iad's constructed between pakistan and afghanistan and become the roadside bombs that have killed so many of our troops, the leading cause of death and wounded so many as well, we know there is a legal impediment in afghanistan does not do us
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much good because of the calcium nitrate that comes across the borders from pakistan. this has been not just horrific to watch, but frustrating when i go to pakistan three times and in the last visit telling the pakistan of leaders, we need you to help us with that not only to protect rgi's but your own people. they promise, they promise, and talk about a great plan and strategy. so far, it is completely inaccurate -- inadequate, the response. i just want to get your sense of how we can make progress on that to use every bit of diplomacy, engagement, pressure, what ever it is to insist the government of pakistan takes steps which are readily identifiable to reduce the flow of what was a
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fertilizer that becomes -- >> i will say quickly, you have been a terrific leader on it and he paid a lot of attention to this and has made a difference. it is frustrating. i have had those conversations. i have had them at the highest level. i have not been back in the last year or so for a number of different reasons. but i have been in touch -- before and again i was nominated. he and i look forward to having conversations to see if we cannot find a metric here that works for both of us. we have to. i will not go into the intel here. you know full well there is no question about weird it is being produced, where it is coming from, and how.
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it is one of those things we have to see greater cooperation on. >> thank you. senator mccain. >> thank you for allowing the honor of introducing you to the committee. i look forward to many of our spirited conversations we have had for many years. i did not want to bring it up, but since it was brought up by will have to respond again. americans do care. they do care why for americans were murdered. we do care why the american people were misled. they were misled by the talking points that secretary rice told the american people, which were false. they were misled when the information that we needed to know about how those talking points were put together, which we still do not know the answers to many months later.
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we were misled when we were not allowed -- when we still have not gotten answers why there was not better security at the consulate when it was clear indications of the threat. we will -- we were misled when we were not told there was request for the 16 member security force to remain at the consulate and were removed. the list goes on and on. we still have not gotten the answers as to what happened in benghazi. for anyone to say we do not care what happened is absolutely false. i can tell you that because i talked to the families of those who were murdered. some of us will continue our efforts to find out the answers to these questions. the american people deserve them, including white the president of the united states after alleging in a debate with mitt romney said he had called
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it a terrorist act when in fact he had not. that same day he did an interview with cbs news saying he did not know what happened. two >> -- two weeks later he said he did not know the cause. we knew that people do not bring rpg's and mortars to spontaneous demonstrations. some of us will not give up on this despite what some in the media think we should do until we get all of the answers. i was hanging on every word you receiving. i happened to glance at my apps. here is a bbc report. the un says there has been a huge leap in the number of syrian refugees arriving in jordan putting a considerable strain on the resources. more than 26,500 refugees have
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crossed into jordan since 1 january. up to 3000 were arriving every day and at least 50,000 were waiting to cross. that happens to be the camp that we visited. that happens to be the camp where just a few days before there was a very bad storm and these tents were blown down and there were riots and demonstrations and anger and frustration. the belief that we are not helping them. the anger that we felt when a young woman who is a teacher said -- this next generation of children will take revenge on those who did not help them. we are sowing the wind in syria and we will reap the whirlwind. that will be the increased presence of al qaeda and islamist groups that are now flooding into syria, as you
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know. 60,000 dead and counting. the fall of assad is, quote, inevitable. he is planning on plan b which is going to the coast and doing some ethnic cleansing. i appreciate your optimism about the russians. the russians continue to supply them with arms. they continue to veto every resolution that might do something about syria. vladimir putin has just enacted one of the most inhumane a loss from preventing americans from adopting russian children who clearly are now deprived of an opportunity of a better life. i do not think the status quo in syria is something we need to have some more conversations about. i think we ought to tell the syrian people that we are either going to help the more we are not. we know that a no-fly zone and the supply of arms so they can
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defend themselves to counter the arms being provided by the iranians and the iranian revolutionary guard on the ground and the now hundreds of thousands of refugees that are putting the strain on our allies. i have had a lot of conversations. we have had a lot of hearings. we have not done anything. again, 60,000 dead. after 22 months, all i get from the administration is the fall of assad is, quote, inevitable. i agree. but what about what happens in the meantime? i know you are deeply concerned about the situation. but it is terrible. it is heartbreaking. to meet a group of young women as i did in that camp but enter turkey who had been gained rate
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he's really a horrible experience. -- gang raped is really a horrible experience. we can put more books on the ground and prevent the inhumanity, otherwise we will be judged harshly by history. i know that from our previous conversations that you will make this your highest priority. i look forward to at least exploring and trying to implement a different policy than the one we have pursued for the last 22 months. >> thank you. you know this because you and i have talked about this at great length. i have a complete understanding where you are coming from and i know your frustration and i know what you are trying to say about this. i do want to say to you that i
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do not want inquisitive ness or curiosity about what possibility might be with russia and optimism. i do not have optimism. i hope, because the easiest way to resolve it, would be if they were able to reach it if together we could find some track to change the equation and the calculation of assad. i think what everybody worries about is that if you have a complete implosion of the state , nobody has a clear definition of how you put those pieces back together. no. two, you have a much greater risk with respect to the chemical weapons. that is why i want to get in and
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see what the contingency plans are. i cannot measure risk without having a sense of what is on the table. what i do know is there are a lot of weapons there. there are people of in the gulf -- you know who they are -- they are not hesitating to provide weapons. that is one of the reasons that the movement on the ground is faster than the movement -- that is what makes this very complicated. i am deadly serious when i say to you, we will have to sit down. there is nothing more that we need then congressional consensus if we can build it on something like this. particularly, if the worst happens and you have disintegration. there are other forces at play that none of us have any control over. one of the things that has
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struck me in the last year the more i have travelled the region is the depth of the sectarian divide. you know it well. suni, shia, and deeply into lots of judgments out there. we have to be particularly -- others. you have 74% of syria that is muslim. you have 16% made up of alawite and some shia. the alawite are 10%. you have a breakdown with interest in various parts of the country. i know one of the scenarios everybody is talking about is people could break up often to their places. the kurds could be in the northeast. it could have a disintegration.
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these are the risks. this is what is at stake in this new world we are dealing with. nobody can sit here and tell you how it all plays out. we are going to have to get our heads together, regardless of party, and think about the interest of the united states of america, think about the region, the interest of the neighbors, the interest of our friends like israel, and figure out how we come up with an equation that is workable and meets those interests. the final comment, i did not suggest and i do not want to suggest that hillary clinton was saying people do not care about what happened. she was talking about the difference between what the recommendations were and implementing them and this notion that we have to go
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backwards. here is what i say to you. after 29 years here, i respect the prerogatives of the united states senate and the members of congress. you represent the american people. you have a right to know what took place. i have an obligation to commensurate with regulations and classifications and privacy and other things at play here to help you get the answers. i will do that. i hope we can do that in did not contentious appropriate way. >> i think you would agree with me that every day that goes by in syria, it gets worse. it seems to me there is a very strong impetus that we realize that the present policy is not succeeding and to look at other options to prevent what is going
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on now for 22 months with 60,000 dead. >> i agree, but i think you would agree with me that whatever judgments you make, they have to pass the test of whether or not that if you do them, they are actually going to make things better. you have to make a test of a cost analysis in doing that. human life cost, effect on other countries. >> thank you. >> john, thank you for being here. teresa, it is great to see you and the family here as well. the question from john mccain is not expect -- not unexpected. i do remember his opening comments introducing you. it brought me back to my first days when you and john mccain, vietnam veterans, worked together in a noble task to
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establish normal relations with vietnam, which continue to this day and to deal with the controversy a contentious issue of pow's and mia's. i came to you as a brand new senator, you two did an extraordinary job of moving him forward and giving him a chance to serve. thank you for reminding me of that chapter in my public career and reminding me what you and john carry accomplish together. i went to ask you about the role of the secretary of state and the security of the united states. it is often called upon to negotiate to make us safer. since world war ii that has involved a nuclear weapons, and
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it does to this day as we discussed the future of iran into the nuclear club, which we do not want to see happen. we knew after 9/11 there was a new threat, terrorism, biological chemical weapons, stateless organizations that attacks the united states and kills innocent people. i think it was last year or the year before that we were briefed by the state department and the department of defense about the greatest threat to the security of the united states and it was cyber security. i think you may have attended the briefing, democrats and republicans explain to us this invisible war that goes on even as we meet between the united states and many who are not our friends that are trying to invade us, invade our
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infrastructure, invade our technology and do great harm to us. not just in economic terms but in terms of human life. we are told of this is the most serious threat facing us today. it brings to mind the fact that in the 21st century, or as we know it is different. it is a war devolving -- involving the invisible the invisible computers. it is drones and aircraft. i would like you to reflect on this as far as the role of the secretary of state and negotiations to make us safer in a world where cyber security is our greatest threat. >> that is a huge question. you have hit the nail in the head with respect to the significant threat. as you know, there is legislation -- there was legislation last year, which we try to get through, that would have helped us.
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a very small step in trying to deal with this issue. much of this as you know is classified. it is hard to lay it out in full before the american people. every day as we sit here, certain countries are attacking our systems. they are trying to hack in to classified information, to various agencies of our government, to banking structures. the money has been stolen from accounts and moved in large sums. there is a long list of grievances with respect to what this marvel of the internet and the technology age has brought us. but it is threatening. it is threatening to our power grid and our communications, threading to the capacity to respond. there are people out there who know it. there are some countries we are currently engaged in, all of the
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senators know who they are, they have a good understanding of this power and who are pursuing it. it is the modern-day -- i guess i would call it the 21st century nuclear weapons equivalent. we are going to have to engage a in cyber diplomacy and cyber negotiations and try to establish rules of the road that help us to be able to cope with this challenge. there are e enormous difficulties ahead. as you know, i think most diplomacy is an extension of a particular nation's interests. in some cases it is an extension of their values. sometimes to get a terrific opportunity to mix the two and
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you can do things that need all of your aspirations. sometimes you are more waited in the interest in the values. you can all pig different countries and things you have done that need to that. -- pick a different countries and things you have done that need to do that. this is a way to address the interest of other states to find common ground, if that makes sense to you. we're going to have to dig into it a lot deeper. i do not have a magic silver bullet. >> i wanted to bring it up because i think it is topical. when you become secretary of state which i believe you will, this will be front and center. i would also like to come down to a much more mundane issue i raised before with the current secretary, and that is the impact of sequestration on the department of state. we are literally weeks away from mandated budget cuts within the
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department of state. we have spent yesterday and even again today talking about security and our embassy, consulates, and men and women who risk their lives to represent america. i would ask you a in closing that he would try to as soon as you can report to us about the impact of these cuts on our state department, which has a small percentage of our budget but is going to face substantial cuts because of the sequestration requirements. >> i am glad you raised it. we are going to have to talk about it. yesterday we had a hearing in which two distinguished people were the basis of the report in which you were having the hearing. admiral said we ned $1.2 billion or more to do what we need to do for security.
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if you let the american presence of their, we are going to have to deal with -- we have to get our business done here and do it the right way. i just want to say to people that -- i will wait until we come to the budget. >> thank you, mr. chairman. yesterday with secretary clinton i asked about the assertion that al qaeda had been decimated. she said what we are seeing now are people who have migrated back to other parts of the world, primarily they are affiliates. she said some of them like al qaeda in the islamic use that name, others use different names. she said, they are terrorists. they are extremists. they have designs on overthrowing existing governments. she said we do have to contend with the wanna-be's and
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affiliates going forward. i would ask on al qaeda, the affiliates, the wanna-be's and the challenge it will present. >> it is very real. i agree with secretary clinton's statement and her appraisal. the core al qaeda, we are talking about the al qaeda that took us to afghanistan and to pakistan. that is core al qaeda. the attack the united states of america. those are the people we approved military action against unanimously in the congress a in 2001. they have migrated. if you go to the intel -- i think this is unclassified. i know this is unclassified. osama bin laden in the documents that came out is quoted as urging the his cohorts to go to
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other places, to get away from the airplanes, get away from the drones. he specifically encouraged al qaeda to disperse, and they did it. in addition to that, we have been under the directive of the president who undertook the most concentrated effort of in history in terms of targeting a specific terrorist group, we have taken out huge proportion of the leadership of coeur al qaeda, a huge proportion. you do not want to be no. 3 or no. 4 a in line in that business because they are disappearing as fast as to get the job. obviously, the top dog who took the place of osama bin laden is still at large, but i think
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there are those in the intel community and the administration who believe that over the course of the next months, that core al qaeda can really be almost degraded to the point that is no longer the threat. the threat has augmented in the peninsula, in a rock -- iraq. i think that is why the united states, the president has made the decision to support the efforts of the french in mali. that has been why there has been a focused effort in going in yemen to focus on that part of the world.
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there is a success story as i talk about that increased threat, somalia. in somalia where they became associated with al qaeda, we have been able in concert with others, not alone, to drive them back and see a government emerge, which we now recognize and which we're in a position to help hopefully stabilize and move to a better relationship. we can change these things, but takes a focused effort and perseverance. doesn't happen overnight, but it takes something more than just the drone effort and the other effort. it takes that effort to develop a government like we did in somalia. we have to be prepared to do that. >> we talked yesterday about bringing to justice the killers who attacked our people on september 11 and the president said he would bring those killers to justice. happened,hat hasn't do you think that has emboldened the recent attacks?
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>> i can't get into anybody's mind what they do or don't know or perceive about it. i'll tell you this, if so, it's going to be short lived, becaus i know from talking to the f.b.i. director that they are pursuing that diligently. he was personally just in libya. meeting on this and those efforts are going to continue. and i know that this president -- you know, he doesn't bluff about these kinds of things. he has said they are going to pay a price and said he would go into pakistan if we had evidence to operate on and i'm confident when and if we are prepared, we will execute with respect to finding justice for what happened in benghazi. >> the keystone xl pipeline and senator boxer said, it wouldn't belong before it crossed your desk.
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a bipartisan group of senators signed on to a letter to president obama requesting that he approve the construction of the pipeline. we are asking that the review process be completed by the end of march and i hope you will be able to comply with that. >> i will try. i need to check in with the legal department and make sure -- i don't want to make a promise that i'm unaware of what can be fulfilled. i can tell you this. it's happening in the appropriate due course of business and we'll try to get it done as soon as we can. >> i had a chance to visit with former senator sam nunn and you have to think what's important for the united states and humanitarian issue as we look at limited resources. climate change is a big issue you have been concerned on. the global energy needs are going to increase about 50%,
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that emissions are going to go up significantly primarily because of china and india and we could do significant harm to the u.s. economy i think by putting additional rules and regulations with very little impact on the global climate. in this tight budget environment, with some any competing priorities, i would ask you to give considerable thought into limiting significantly resources that would not help us as an economy, not help us as a country, and not help a schoolboy -- not help us globally. >> i have a lot of specific thoughts on it. the solution to climate change is energy policy.
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and the opportunities of energy policy so vastly outweigh the down sides that you are expressing concern about. and i will spend a lot of time trying to persuade you and other colleagues of this. if you want to do business and do it well in america, you have to get into the energy race. other countries are in it. in massachusetts, the fastest growing sector of our economy is clean energy and energy efficiency companies. and they are growing faster than any other sector. the same is true in california. this is a job creator. i cannot emphasize that strongly enough. the market that made america rich -- richer -- we have always been reached -- but the market them it is richer in the 1990's was the technology market. it was a $1 trillion market with 1 billion users.
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and we create greater wealth in america than has been treated even in the raging time of 9 contacts and the pierpont morgan's and a melons and kearney's -- melons and carnegies and rockefellers. everyone went up. so we can do this recognizing that the energy market is a $6 trillion market compared to one with 4 billion users today going up and 9 billion over the course of the next 20 to 30 years. this is a place for us to recognize what other countries are doing and what are states that are growing are doing, which is there is an extraordinary amount of opportunity in modernizing america's energy grid. we don't even have a great in america. we have a great big open gap in
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the circle of america. you have the east coast grid, a texas grid, and then you have to live from chicago to the dakotas. from minnesota to arizona or arizona to massachusetts, it does not make sense. we cannot make -- we can of the modern country if we don't fix that of a structure. i respectfully say to you that climate change is not something to be feared. it is to be feared if we don't take the steps. 3500 communities in our nation last year broke records for heat. we had a real that, because of the heat bend, and we had a derailment because of it. we had record fires, record damage from sandy, $77 billion. if we cannot see the downside of spending that money and risking
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lives for all the places with agriculture in the oceans and so forth, then we're just are a note -- and we are just ignoring what science tells us. not based on ideology, but based on facts, based on science. i hope to stick with all of you and convince you that the $6 trillion market is worth millions of american jobs and leadership. and we better go after it. >> thank you. >> to mine good friend, senator barack so -- senator baraso, new mexico is a producer state. i found the same experience that senator kerrey is talking about in massachusetts in mexico. the fastest growing sector is these renewable jobs. i think it is a big opportunity for us. we should be pursuing it. i agree with what he just said. i hope we can work with each
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other because we should try to pull together and discuss the facts and really pursue this sector that will be so vital to the future and vital to job growth. but john, great to have you here. you really earned this. there is no doubt about it. it is great to see teresa and vanessa. i was walking over, my second time and care, and i saw the cutest grande halle had seen in a long time. i said i you going -- the accused grandchild i had seen in a long time. i said, are you going to bring him in. and they said no. in my observation, my short time on a foreign relations committee, i think a great deal of what the foreign-policy is about is building personal relationships and building personal relationships with leaders around the world.
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and the one thing that i have really observed, senator kerry, a view is that you have done that. we have so many of these private meetings over there in the capital with the foreign relations room. i can just feel with meeting with all of these leaders the tremendous respect to the half for you and the ability you will have to build on that to make an excellent secretary of state. so i am very excited about this opportunity for you. in my first question, i wanted to focus on mexico and central america. during the last decade to relations between the united states and mexico has strengthened as a result of our shared security goals relating to the merida initiative, which includes judicial reform. i think you know this very well.
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however, the federal government and many of the mexican states have yet to pass legislation which would change their judicial system from an inquisitorial system to an adversarial system. i have a lot of experience with this as a stated journeyed -- as a state attorney general. we would meet every six months with mexican states and the west is too long people to them to help train in the adversarial system. so my question is how can the u.s. better work with their neighbors in mexico to improve transparency commis efficiency, and the quality of the judicial system and improve this transition they're trying to make from inquisitorial to an adversarial system? >> first of all, thank you for your generous comments. i very much appreciate them. i appreciate working with you on a lot of these issues.
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we are engaged now. you know this, that there are efforts with respect to the justice system. there has been a lot of focus on guns and narcotics and so forth and there has been a shift in policy in mexico. the president was recently in different meetings and my hope is that we can -- i want to keep the existing effort to going, which could become subject to the sequestration and budget efforts. i guess we will have to convince our colleagues of the importance of these kinds of initiatives actually taking root and having the willingness to stamp them. we do get more results. mexico has been under siege. everybody knows that. it has been very difficult. a lot of courage exhibited by military folks and police. i think there is enough for nasa
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to move it somewhere away from the military and more into the justice system. which is why we will have to double our efforts here -- i think there is a need for more judiciary and to move away from the military. which is why we will have to double our efforts here. his government will not abandon the fight against organized crime. how will you were to ensure that areas of mutual interest between the two countries get the attention they deserve and how we get that cooperation along the border? it seems to me that that is absolutely crucial, the cooperation along the border. they have six border states. we have four.
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it is crucial that we work with each other on that. >> the president is indeed trying to move this in a different direction. this has been a highly militarized and very violent initiative over the last years. i am a former prosecutor. you are a former attorney general. i was the chief administrative prosecutor in one of the 10 largest counties in america, middlesex county. and i love prosecuting. it was a great job. we created a drug task force and have all kinds of plans for how to proceed to minimize the impact of narcotics on our communities. one of the things i learned is that there is no one approach. you have to be doing everything they need to do. and that means, domestically in the united states, you have to do education and you have to do
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treatment. because what we have is just a revolving circle of demand and we are the principal demand country. not alone now. europe has a lot of huge demand and russia and other countries, too. cocaine routes and marijuana return of just coming up from colombia and other countries where it has been produced in latin america and the caribbean up to here. it is going across the atlantic into other countries now. it comes from asia into other countries. it is pandemic. so i think we need a more comprehensive approach, one that is less accusatory and finger pointing, and you work cooperatively to understand everybody's role in trying to do something about it. i have always felt that this level of war on drugs is artificial because, you know, or implies that it is all out here
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and i don't think it has never been all-out. principally because we have always failed to do our part with respect to treatment and education and accidents and so forth. we after we engage ourselves and i think that would help establish credibility and viability with other countries. >> thank you very much for those answers. >> senator paul. >> thank you for coming today for your testimony. i believe with canada barack obama who said in 2007 that the president does not have the power under the constitution to unilaterally authorize military attack. i want to know if you agree with candidate barack obama or if you agree with president barack obama who took us to war in libya without congressional authority unilaterally. >> senator paul, one of the things this committee has spent a lot of time on is the war
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powers act, which i support. i believe in congressional authority to go to war. i have argued that on that occasion, with respect to some things here. but there are occasions which i have supported were the president of united states has to make a decision immediately and implement that decision, execute on it immediately. i supported ronald reagan when he sent troops into grenada. i supported george h.w. bush when he sent troops into panama. i supported president clinton, when, against the will of the congress, he did what was needed to be done in casa and bosnia and so forth. -- in kosovo and bosnia and so forth. in this case, i think the president has behaved in that tradition. the don't think concentration -- at of the constitution says that you just
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go ahead and do it. after vietnam, you were quite critical of the bombing in cambodia because he felt that it was not authorized by congress. has your opinion changed about the bombing in cambodia? how is cambodia different from libya? >> my attitude has not changed about vietnam itself. >> what about cambodia? >> it was the extension of a were prosecuted without the involvement of congress after a number of years. that is very different. >> length of time, but similar circumstances. and obama campaign and authorized by congress. it is not this kind of latitude to sometimes go to war and to sometimes not go to war. i thought barack obama was really implicit. that is what i like about him, quite frankly. i like his forthright as when he ran for office and said no president should unilaterally go to war.
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the constitution does not allow it. >> i respect him, of you can be absolutist and apply to every problem. but the problem is that it does does not work in some instances when 10,000 people are about to be wiped out by a brutal dictator and you need to make a quick judgment about engagement. you certainly can't rely on the congress that has proven itself unwilling to move after weeks and months sometimes. >> you think a un resolution is sufficient to go to war? >> no, i think a u.n. resolution, when you say sufficient to go to war, i think the u.n. resolution is a necessary ingredient to provide the legal basis for military action in an emergency. it is not by any means sufficient to require the united states to do something because we obey our constitution and our interests and our rights. >> you heard president morsi's
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comments about the israelis being zionists and bloodsuckers and pace. >> i think those comments are reprehensible. those comments set back the possibilities of working towards interests of mutual interest. they're degrading comments. they are unacceptable by anybody standard. and i think they have to be appropriately apologize for. >> but if you keep sending them weapons, they will not change their behavior. >> let me finish. president morsi has issued two statements to clarify those comments. and we had a group of senators who met with him just the other day, spent a good part of their conversation in relatively heated discussion about it.
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but not everything -- this is always a complication in dealings in the international sector. not everything lends itself to simple clarity, black-white, this, that, every time. we have critical interest with egypt. critical interest with egypt. egypt has thus far supported and lived by the peace agreement with israel. and has taken steps to begin to deal with the problem of security in the sinai. those are vital to us and to our national interests and to the security of israel. in addition to that, they have followed through on a promise to have an election. >> i know things are not black and white -- >> they have had an election.
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they had a constitutional process. there is another election is coming up shortly for the lower house. the fact that sometimes other countries elect somebody that you don't completely agree with doesn't give us permission to walk away from very election process. >> but this is been the problem with their foreign policy for decades. we funded been laid in. we funded measure huh -- we find it bin laden. we funded mahuja badin. i see problems with this. >> as you know, senator, any of the arms sales that united states has engaged in in a part of the world, there's always a measure, a test that is applied with respect to equality of difference in any of those weapons with respect to israel cost defense and security. and we do not sell weapons and will not sell weapons that might
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upset that qualitative dallas. >> but we sell 20 f-sixteens to -- and we have to sell 25 to israel. one i just not give any weapons to israel's energies. -- israel's enemies. that would say was a lot of money. >> better yet, until we are at that moment where that might be achievable, maybe it would be better to try to make peace. >> one more question, would you consider supporting conditioning aid to pakistan on the release of doctor shaquille afridi. i'm afraid that without this, we will make it more informants. >> let me speak to that. first of all, i have talked directly with president azari and with general queani about doctor zafridi. i find it incomprehensible and repugnant that somebody who
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helped to find osama bin laden is in jail in pakistan. that bothers every american. that said, the pakistanis make the argument that he did not know what he was doing. that he did not know who was physically being targeted. what do you think that u.s. helping americans? >> let me finish. he clearly knew what he was doing in that because they also make the argument that he was doing that as a matter of regular course of business. that is no excuse. i am simply explain to you that rather than cut aid, which is a pretty dramatic draconian sledgehammer approach to a relationship that really has a lot of interest. we have dark brown line of communications, which is the military's complicated word for
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roads, that go to afghanistan. and that route is critical to the supply of our troops. >> they were conditions, not cuts. >> on top of that, we had intelligence cooperation. our folks rebuild -- were able to cooperate on a run in pakistan. that is one of the ways we were able to get some of the lady in -- osama bin laden. was there permissiveness and allowing our people to be there that help us be able to tie the knot that focused on that to some degree. not exclusively, obviously, but to some degree. in addition, they have lost some 6000 people just in the last year in their efforts to go after terrorists. they have lost about 30,000 people over the course of the last several years because they have been willing to engage the
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insurgencies. there are things that the pakistanis have done. as complicated as the relationship has been. i intend to raise the issue of doctor rafridi with of them, i can promise you that. but i do not think it is wise to just cut our assistance. we need to build our relationship with the pakistanis. not diminish it. >> thank you very much. i am sorry that our careers in the senate only overlapped for a few weeks. want to thank you because for those of us in our corner of the country that have been in public service for the past 20 years, it is your example that has inspired mavis to do so. your ability to position yourself as a spokesman for the disenfranchised and dispossessed and also as a stewart of our
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country around the world. i think there are many of us who came into public service in part because of your work for our region. i thank you for that. i wanted to spend my short time turning to the asia-pacific region. specifically spending a little bit of time on china as well. circuit -- secretary clinton gave a speech in singapore and crafted a great and very simple phrase about how to day, 41st time in modern history, you can become a global superpower simply through the -- for the first time in modern history, you can become a global superpower simply through the power of your economy. in connecticut, we have about 40% of our exports into their region today on an annual basis. we are increasing their countries' exports to the region by 25% to 30%. and we know, specifically to
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china, those numbers pale to what they could be because high- tech manufacturers power at the prospect of sending products there that will immediately be replicated and sold in counterfeit markets. military manufacturers in connecticut cannot even get into china even as their competitors get a pretty fair shot at getting into our market. and secretary clinton also talked about this new concept of economic statecraft. i wanted to get your thoughts about how we can use in continue to use the power of the department of state to try to pressure the chinese to both correct its flaws with respect to its disposition on intellectual property, pressure that nation to open up its market to more american goods, and then, in general, how you see our ability to really exercise economic pressure on that region to be a source of
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what we hope is a doubling of exports as the president has commanded us to do over the next five years. >> first of all, thank you for your nice comments. i really appreciated. and welcome to the committee. i am delighted to see you and senator cain on the committee. senator reid and i chatted about the folks who might serve on the committee and i am delighted that both of you are there. i am sorry that -- obviously, we will be working together on the committee. but believe me, we will be working together and i look forward to it. look, secretary clinton, if she was sitting here, and she has previously said, and i will simply reiterate and underscore, china is an ongoing process. and it takes commitment and perseverance to break through on
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one issue or another. we have a lot of issues with china. my intention is to continue to focus as the administration has begun to retrieve bouncing to grow that rebalance because it is critical for us to strengthen our relationship with china. china is -- it is a significant economy in the world than it has a voracious appetite for resources in the world and we need to work with what works for everybody. that is why the administration came up with the trans-pacific partner in it -- partnership in an effort to try to establish greater leverage for this notion that are broadly set the rules of the road which are critical to our doing commerce. but on things like in connection -- intellectual property, market access, currency, there are
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still significant challenges ahead with china. my hope is that the new administration will recognize also the need to shorter broaden the relationship with us in return. i could envision a way in which china could play a much more significant role as a partner in any number of efforts globally. we should not be viewed as -- i mean, we will be competitors in the economic marketplace, but we should not be viewed as adversaries in some way that diminishes our ability to cooperate on a number of things. china is cooperating with us now on iran. i think there might be more we can perhaps do with respect to north korea. there could be more we could do in other parts of the far east. and hopefully we can build those
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relationships that will further that transformation. we make progress. pead is incremental. it is a tough slog. and there is not any single magic way to approach it. but if we have a better sense of their mutuality of our interest and the commonality of the goals that we can work toward, climate change is an example. if we just around where we are today in respect to the comments that i think baraso made, we will have a problem because china will soon have double the missions of the united states of america. so we have to get these folks as part of this unified effort and i intend to work very hard to trying to do that. >> i appreciate that. the one probably most important stumbling block to the growing
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diplomatic partnership that i agree could have transformational potential for the world is a potential conflict between china's growing military footprint in the region and now when it comes to our military interest as well. we have seen these growing territorial disputes between china and the philippines and china and japan and korea and japan. how do we ramp up militarily in the region without getting drawn in to a lot of these disputes, which we have no immediate interest in, but makes it a little bit harder to stay disconnected from if we just have a larger footprint there? >> i am not convinced that interest military ramp is critical yet. i am not convinced of that. that is something i would want to look at very carefully when if -- when and if you folks confirm me and i get in there and i can begin to this deeper.
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but we have more bases out there than any other nation in the world, including china today. we have a lot more forces out there than any other nation in the world, including china today. and we just augmented the president's announcement in australia with additional marines. the chinese take a look at that and say, what is the united states doing? are they trying to circle us? what is going on? every action has its reaction. it is not just the law of physics. it is the law politics. and diplomacy. i think we have to be thoughtful about how we go forward. i also want to take on the word "pivot." implies that we are turning away from some morals. i want to emphasize that we're not turning away from a new world. whenever we do in china, it should not -- or in the far
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east, in indonesia, which is rapidly growing and enormously important, vietnam, all of these countries -- should not come and i hope will not comment the respect -- in the expense of our relationships with europe and others. what we need to do is bring europe along with us to the recognition of the opportunities in the far east. it would improve our clout. it would leverage the market. perhaps there has been some talk of a u.s.- eu trade relationship. i do not know if that can become a reality or not. but i think we need to think thoughtfully about not creating a threat where there is not one and understanding very carefully where we can find the basis of better cooperation. i want to emphasize -- because i don't want somebody out there saying that kerry has a mistaken
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notion of what china is up to or what they're doing. i am not saying you don't have to be pretty careful and vigilant and understand where it is going. and i am not talking about retreating from their current levels whatsoever. i am simply trying to think about how we do this in a way that does not create the reaction you don't want to create. >> thank you. senator mccain. >> senator kerry, your 29 years of service on this committee is a great example for those of us newcomers and i think you for that and i look forward to working with u.s. secretary. a comment and to questions. in the shares opening round of questions, he raised issues about our relations in the western hemisphere. that is deeply important to me. i worry a little bit that our foreign policy has been very
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oriented east-west. but the north-south texas is also very important. i worry about the -- but the north-south axis is also very important. i worry about the chinese in latin america. as you talk about these matters today, i really hope that the state department has that north- south taxes as a key focus. your opening comments demonstrated what has long been a position of yours, that you understand that we have a number will bond with israel and that is why the definitive statement about the iranian nuclear ambitions, that we have a possibility of prevention, that is very heartening to hear. as much as i believe that, i also believe that, as difficult as it looks, we also long for the day, long for the prospect
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that there will be peace between a secured a jewish state of israel and an independent and prospers palestine. it might seem unlikely, but the current peaceful relationships in ireland seemed equally unlikely 30 years ago. what would your approach be as secretary of state in trying to advance that day so that it might be sooner rather than later. >> part of my approach to help them advance that days to not be too explicit here today. [laughter] a have a lot of thoughts about that challenge. one of the things that i can guarantee you -- i don't want to prejudice it by public demands to any party at this time. i will say this. president obama is deeply committed to a two-state
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solution. i have been reading lately speculation about whether or not he is committed to the process or what he thinks or believes, etc. a lot of it is wrong and blown out of proportion. the president understands the stakes and the implications in the middle east. and the almost -- so much of what we aspire to achieve and what we need to do globally, what we need to do in south asia, south central asia, throughout the gulf, all of this is tied to what can or doesn't happen with respect to israel and palestine. in some places, it is used as an excuse. in other places, it is a genuine
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and deeply felt challenge. i will say anything that prejudice is our ability to try to get a negotiation moving in the appropriate way, a new corporate matter, and i will even go into what that is. but i think -- i personally believe -- i have been at this almost 29 years in this committee. we have been at this. i have watched all of it. i was on the lawn when we were there with the handshake. with arafat. i have been through seven prime ministers, nine and all, two of them with the same. and i have seen what plantation. we need to try to find a way forward and i happen to believe
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that there is a way forward. but i also believe that, if we cannot be successful, the door or window or whatever you want to call it to the two-day solution which it to everybody and that would be disastrous, in my judgment. so i think this is an enormously important issue. i will never step back from my commitment to the state of israel, which i have shown for the 29 years i have been here. but i also will not step back from my understanding of the plight of palestinians and others who are caught up in the swirl of this. young children who i have seen who have hopes for a future, i would like to see us deliver. >> the state department and the secretary play critical roles in human rights and you touched on those today. a recent example, your involved
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in some way with the activity with secretary clinton and others on the side of the human rights activist in china. i am concerned about religious freedom. we share a faith background and we also shared commitment that all should be able to worship as they please or not without official pressure replenishment or preference. whether it is marginalization of muslims in europe or repression of christians in the middle east wars anti-semitism anywhere. the u.s. has -- or anti-semitism in europe. the u.s. has a place. i would like to hear you talk about that. >> i couldn't agree more and i am glad you raised that issue. it is at the core of who we are. the tolerance of which the united states is founded is one of our greatest attributes. and it is interesting.
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i will tell you that we have gone through our own turbulence in that. we did not arrive at it naturally. the. -- the puritans came to massachusetts and there were few excesses. then a guy named roger williams left massachusetts and went down and traveled through the forests through the winter and came out on a day and call that province. that is now a province, rhode island. you have -- providence, rhode island. you have john davenport in new haven, connecticut. they were all the way from religious persecution right here in our own country. it took us awhile to get it right. i think we do. needless to say, one of the rules of the state department is to help people understand what an essential ingredient tolerances and diversity and pluralism. to the ability of the country to flourish, for people to have their rights.
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that is one of the big challenges that we face. i am sure that my visors in the state department would say, stop there, senator. but i will say something additional, which is -- i have a lot of friends who are muslim who have met and built relationships over the years in my travels. leaders in that region will be the first to tell you, me, others that what you see a radical islam is not islam. it is radical islam. it is an exploitation and hijacking of an old and honored religion. and what we need to do is find a way -- and this is something we have to work at -- for people to understand the degree to what that is happening and how it has
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become an excuse for their disenfranchisement, for being deprived of good governance, for being deprived of a good economy, jobs and opportunity. one of our missions is to not let that be an excuse. so i think carrying the banner of religious tolerance and diversity and pluralism is critical. i know we have raised that with president morsi. i've personally raised that with him. i think i was the first american to meet with him before he became -- before he even knew he was a candidate. and we talked about the need for the brother had to be able to respect the diversity of egypt. that has not happened completely as much as we would like in the constitutional process. but, as i said, that is an ongoing process and we need to work together in order to try to do it. but, senator, you've raised a central issue with respect to what is happening to politics of
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certain regions of the world. and it has to be front and center in our dialogue. >> thank you. >> thank you for having the hearing. mr. chairman, i think all of us who have no new and have known your service here for 29 years thought they you would acquit herself well today. i think you have acquitted yourself exceptionally well. i know you will be confirmed in the next very few days. i thank you for the fact that you want to serve in this position and the fact that you have developed such an extensive background and understanding. i know you will be really good in this job. i look forward to working with you. and thank you for the patience. mr. chairman, at two quick questions. having gone through the lengthy hearings on the administrative review boards recommendations and what happened in benghazo,
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can we be assured that you will make a top priority? >> absolutely. >> secondly, with arab democracy programs worldwide,, we expected to be strong supporter of those programs? >> yes. >> to suggest that spring break is a form of torture to the regime, they are experts about torture. as is evidenced by the increasing brutal crackdown on peaceful democracy advocates on the island just in the last year. over 6600 peaceful democracy advocates were detained or arrested. just this past sunday, the ladies in white, a group of women who dress in white and marjorie sun. -- in a white every sunday try to get together
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to go to church. the results of that -- these are individuals who are the relatives of former or current political prisoners in jails. the result is that more than 35 of the women in white were intercepted, beaten with belts, threatened to death by agents aiming guns at them and temporarily arrested. then we have the united states citizen who all he tried to do was try to give access to the internet to a small jewish group in havana and has been languishing in jail for four years. that is real torture. mr. chairman, you have given an incredibly thoughtful, extensive, passionate at times, and an incredible depth of knowledge before this committee for nearly three hours and 50 minutes. it is a testament to your long
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service, yearlong commitment and what we can expect of you as the next secretary of state. and i know that your father, richard, who also served this country, would be extremely proud of you today. the committee will receive questions for the records until the close of business today. so we years members who may have any questions to do so by the close of business today. we courage the nominee and the department to respond to the questions as expeditiously as possible. with that, the meeting is adjourned. [applause] c-span3 c-span [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2013]
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>> senate majority the year harry reid said that the full senate will vote on senator kerrey's nomination on tuesday. thursday, congressional democrats unveil legislation to
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ban assault weapons and high- capacity magazines. here is part of the briefing with california senator dianne feinstein. you can watch this briefing in its entirety in our video library at c-span.org. >> today, my colleagues and by our introducing a bill to prohibit the sale, transfer, manufacture and importation of assault weapons and large capacity ammunition feeding devices that can accept more than 10 rounds. let me briefly describe the legislation we are introducing. we prohibit 158 specifically- named military-style firearms. since the 1994 law expired, there has been an influx of new models of assault weapons. these models are more powerful,
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more lethal, and more technologically advanced. then the weapons were in 1993. our bill also prohibits other sammie-automatic rifles, handguns, and shotguns that can accept a detachable magazine and have one military characteristic. one criticism of the 1994 law was that it was a 2- characteristic test that the find it and it was too easy to work around. manufacturers could simply remove one of the characteristics and the firearm was legal. the bill we are introducing today will make it much more difficult to work around by moving a wine-characteristic test. the bill also prevents and prohibits specific loopholes, such as the slide tired stock,
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which can be added to and a r- 15, which essentially makes it mimic automatic weapons and it is legal. these are all modifications that make it easy for manufacturers to be paid the law. the bill prohibits semiotic -- to the evade the law. the bill prohibits semiautomatic handguns with magazines that accept more than 10 rounds the ban the importation of assault weapons and large capacity magazines. elimination of the 10-year sunset. let me tell you what the bill will not do. it will not affect hunting or sporting firearms. instead, the bill protect hunters and sportsmen by protecting 2200 specifically- named weapons used for hunting
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or sporting purposes. they are by make and model exempted from the legislation. when we did this bill in 1993, there were 375. today, there are 2200. finally, the bill subjects existing or grandfathered weapons to a background check in the event the weapon is sold or transferred. we have tried to learn from the bill. we have tried to recognize legal hunting rights. we have tried to recognize legal defense rights. we have tried to recognize the right of a citizen to legally possess a weapon. no weapon is taken from anyone. the purpose is to drive up the supply of these weapons over time. therefore, there is no sunset on this bill.
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>> of lifting the ban on women serving in combat, we will hear from defense secretary leon panetta next on c-span. we also had the u.s.-africa command general carter ham. the emancipation proclamation was issued 150 years ago. tomorrow, a discussion on race and president obama's second term for it is hosted by the new america foundation and the washington local man -- washington monthly magazine. later, live coverage of the republican national committee winter meeting. rnc chairman will review the party's priorities. coverage begins at 1:00 p.m. eastern. >> one of the key themes for exhibition on the civil war is
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the twin issues of abolition and emancipation. we are fortunate that both winslow homer and johnson came of age when a bee. between the two of them, they make issues around the match -- around emancipation and abolition issues about human rights and american freedom on a general, non-race-specific level. i will summarize by saying, if you pay attention to the top half as well as the bottom half, what you will get is a white cat sleeping in a window and a black woman holding a white-skinned a child. there is a way in and out without being seen. there is a rooster appear. they have a habit in the evening of finding a purge and call into the hands to stop -- and calling
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to the hens to spend the night with them. you see the white girl entering the backyard with the black women making sure that the coast is clear. some say that she's coming to hear the music. she is the mistress or the master's daughter. nobody is paying attention to her. nobody is saying, look who is here. is she a product of one of those liaison's? >> the civil war and its influence on american artists, part of american history tv this sunday on c-span 3 at 7:00 p.m. eastern and pacific. >> the defense department is lifting the ban on women serving in combat. we will hear from defense secretary leon panetta and joint chiefs of staff chairman general martin dempsey at this 40-minute briefing.
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>> good afternoon. one of my priorities as secretary of defense has been to remove as many barriers as possible for a talented and qualified people to be able to serve this country in uniform. our nation was built on the premise of the citizen soldier. in our democracy, i believe it is the responsibility of every citizen to protect the nation. and every citizen who meets the qualifications of service should have that opportunity. to that end, i have been working closely with general dempsey and the joint chiefs of staff who have been working for well over a year to examine how we can
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expand the opportunities for women in the armed services. it is clear to all of us that women are contributed in unprecedented ways to the military's mission of defending the nation. women represent 15% of the force, over two hundred thousand. they are serving in a growing number of critical roles on and off the battlefield. the fact is that they have become an integral part of our ability to perform our mission. for more than a decade of war, they have demonstrated courage and skill and patriotism. 150 two women in uniform have died serving this nation in
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iraq and a afghanistan. female service members have faced the reality of combat, proven their willingness to fight and, yes, to die, to defend their fellow americans. however, many military positions, particularly in ground combat units, still remain closed to women because of the 1994 direct ground combat definition and assignment rule. military and civilian leaders in this department have been taking a hard look at that will. based on the experiences is a of that rule -- of that rule based on the experiences of the last decade. we announce some modifications that opened up 14,000 new
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positions for women. including positions that were co-located with ground combat units and certain positions in ground combat these changes have been implemented, and the experience has been very positive. anytime i have visited the war zone, every time i have met with troops and reviewed military operations and talk to wounded warriors, i have been impressed with the fact that everyone, at men and women alike, it is committed to doing the job. they are fighting and dying together. the time has come for our policies to recognize that reality.
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the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff and i believe there must be service opportunities for women as fully as possible. therefore today, general dempsey and i are pleased to announce we are limiting the direct ground combat exclusion rules for women, and we are moving forward with the plan to eliminate all unnecessary gender-based barriers to service. in a few moments after we speak, we will both signed a memo that will rescind the '94 barrier. our purpose is to be ensure that the mission is carried out by the best qualified and most
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capable service members, regardless of gender and regardless of creed and beliefs. if members of our military can meet the qualifications for a job -- let me be clear, i am not talking about reducing the qualifications for the job -- if they can meet the qualifications for the job, they should have the right to serve regardless of creed, color, gender, or sexual orientation. having conducted an extensive review, the joint chiefs of staff has developed a very thoughtful approach to integrating women into occupations across the force. i strongly agree with the guiding principles and the specific milestones that they have proposed. we are all committed to implementing this change without compromising readiness or morale or our war fighting capabilities. positions will be open to women following service reviews, using the joint chiefs vetting
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principles and following congressional notification procedures established by law. for this change in policy to succeed, it must be done in a responsible, measured, coherent way. i will let general dempsey describe our plan of action in greater detail, but the bottom line is that further integration of women will occur expeditiously, even as we recognize the need to take time to institutionalize changes of this importance. the steps we are announcing today are significant, and in many ways they are an affirmation of where we have been heading for more than 10 years. nevertheless, it will take more than leadership and professionalism to effectively
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implement these changes. i am confident by our ability to do that. because i am confident in the leadership that general dempsey and the joint chiefs of staff have demonstrated throughout this process. this has truly been a team effort. i deeply admire the extremely thorough and considered approach that they have taken. i want to express my deepest thanks to marty dempsey for his leadership and all the service chiefs who have been working on this issue and as a group came forward with the recommendation we are implementing today. our men and women in uniform do not ask for more of their leaders in uniform. i fundamentally believe that our military is more effective when success is based solely on
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ability and qualifications around performance. when i looked at my grandson and nine granddaughters, and i have got six grandchildren, three grandsons and three granddaughters, i want each of them to have the same chance to succeed at whatever they want to do. in life, as we all know, there are no guarantees of success. not everyone is going to be able to be a combat soldier. but everyone is entitled to a chance. by committing ourselves to that principle, we are renewing our
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commitment to the american values our service members fight and die to defend. as secretary, i have gone to bethesda to visit wounded warriors. when i have gone to arlington to bury our dead, there is no distinction that is made between the sacrifices of men and women in uniform. they serve, at they or wounded, and they in die right next to each other. the time has come to recognize that reality. by opening up more opportunities for are men and women in uniform, we are making our military stronger and we make america stronger. we deeply honor all of this past generations of combat
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soldiers and marines who fought and died for our freedom. in many ways their sacrifice has ensured that the next greatest generation will be one of men and women who will fight and die together to protect this nation. that is what freedom is all about. >> thank you, mr. secretary. today we are acting to expand the opportunities for women to serve in the united states armed forces and to better align our policies with the experiences we have had over the past decade of war. ultimately, we are acting to strengthen the force. congress acted first in 1948 by legislating that women became a permanent part of the armed forces.
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last year, as the secretary mentioned, we acted to open thousands of mission-essential occupations at more echelons and more ground combat units. after months of work, the joint chiefs and i recently submitted to the secretary our unanimous recommendation to rescind the direct combat exclusion role for women. in so doing, we are acting to eliminate all unnecessary gender-based barriers to service. the joint chiefs share a common cause on the needed to start this now and to do it right. we are committed to a purposeful and principled approach, specifically, we would extend opportunities to wick in a way that would maintain readiness. and we will uphold the trust and confidence of the american people as we go forward.
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our nation demands no less. we'll also integrate women in a way that enhances opportunity for everyone. this means setting clear standards of for everyone in all occupations based on what it takes to do the job. it also means that ensuring these jobs are gender neutral. as we introduce women to closed occupations we must make sure there is a sufficient number of females entering the career field and already assigned in the leadership positions in order to sustain the positions overtime. these patrols will guide the work ahead. we'll expand the number of units and the number of women assigned to those units this year. so we can start assigning personnel to previously closed
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occupations and they will take the time needed to do the work without compromising the principles i just mentioned. some specialties and ratings shall remain exceptions. the services will bear the responsibility for providing the thorough analysis needed to better understand and better articulate what is best for the joint force and the women who serve in it. at the same time, women will continue to serve with distinct in and out of combat on land, at sea, an in the air. we all wear the same uniform and most importantly, we all take the same oath. thank you, the secretary and i will now sign the document.
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[applause] ok, now onward. go ahead. >> mr. chairman, over course of your career, based on your experience the you talk about what you think is realistic as we look ahead to the next couple of years. have you considered the physical demands of the job, do you expect you will see anywhere near 100% of jobs open or what are the realistic expectations that you have based on what you have learned over the past year? mr. secretary, on a separate issue, north korea, i'm sure you know,
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can you talk about what if any, military preparations are maybe needed over the next couple of weeks to prepare for that and if any additional steps will be taken? >> to answer about the question of what i see happening. with the direct combat in place, i saw a ticker that says women about to be allowed to serve in combat. we're way beyond that. that is the point here. women are serving in combat and have been. when i got to baghdad in 2003, i hopped into the humvee and i asked the driver who he was and where he was from. i side who are you and she said she's amanda. i said ok.
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from that point that i realized something had changed and it was time to do something about it. what we've done though, is by eliminating direct combat exclusion provision, the burden used to be -- the burden used to say, why should a woman serve in a particular specificity? now, it is why shouldn't she serve? the services now -- with that now as the reversed paradigm to come back overtime and with careful analysis and make sure we have the standards right in other words -- if we're going to keep them close they have to explain right. i think there will be the right amount of scrutiny on that. we have to be the most ready force that we can possibly be. i don't know how that will sort out but i'm eager to begin the journey.
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>> one thing that i've been struck by, you know, in almost 50 years since i served in the military. to go out now and see women perform in roles and doing a great job at it, i think it encouraged me and i think it encouraged all of us that everybody should have a chance. you should be able to perform in any mission if they can meet the qualifications. i think we've been talking and working this issue for a while
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but i think we both share the feeling that what we're seeing in the men and women in uniform are just outstanding individuals and make a hell contribution to this country and they are willing to put their lives on the line. physical they are willing to put their lives on the line then we need to recognize they deserve a chance to serve in any capacity that they want. with regards to north korea, we are very concerned with north korea's continuing behavior. what they said in these -- in the last few days have been needlessly provocative. if they go forward with the kind of tests they are talking about, it again, representing a violation of the u.s. security resolutions and a violation of the national law. we made it very clear that they have a choice.
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they have a choice to -- between trying to become a member of the international family by negotiating a way to resolve the issues that concern the international community and try to do what they can to improve the status of their people. or to engage in this kind of provocative behavior which in the end, will do nothing, nothing other than jeopardize the hope for peace. the united states, we are fully prepared, we are prepared to deal with any actions from the north koreans but i hope they determine it is better to make a choice to become part of our team. >> are there any signs that a
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rocket launch is eminent? >> i certainly follow the intelligence closely. we've seen no outward indications. but that doesn't tell you much. they have the capability, frankly, to conduct these tests in a way that makes it difficult to determine whether or not they are doing it. >> would you put in perspective that this policy change is a great policy change back in 1948, at the end of don't ask don't tell. will this be as challenging or less challenging because of the major shifts the military has to adapt to? this is not on auto pilot, there are going to be some hurdle to overcome. >> sure. that's why you see the time
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intervals that we've asked for and the secretary has given us. one of the things we want to make sure we do, tony, we talk about learning the lessons of the last 10 years of war. we want to make sure we don't learn the wrong lessons. what i mean by that is, the kind of warfare we're involved in now -- you're generally back there frequently, sometimes every day you come back to the base where you have a mess hall, you have housing units and showering units. one thing we want to do with the time that the secretary has given us is make sure that the standards we develop and accept and measure are standards that apply in any particular kind of convict not just one kind of -- conflict not just one kind of conflict. sures why we want to make we have the standards right so anyone who makes the standard
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can serve in that particular occupation skill. >> do you see any major roadblocks here over next year or two? >> in this country, as the president himself pointed out in his inaugural speech, we've been on a long journey. a long journey in achieving equality. there have been some tough challenges along the road in facing every barrier, whether it was racial barriers, which we've overcome, the don't ask don't tell, dealing with women, all of these have not come easy. they have all required a lot of sacrifice, a lot of work, a lot
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of dedication, a lot of leadership. i think that is the case here. we have the experience of women being in the service. we've seen them in combat as the general pointed out. i think that gives us a head start. i feel very confident we can make this work. >> what are the necessary gender -- [indiscernible] >> the issue of that is the issue of standards. if you think about the difference between counterinsurgency and conflict on the current peninsula. it is a different environment that requires a different level of physical stamina. we want to make sure we get the standards right. we don't want to over engineer them either, they ought to be fair.
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then we allow individuals of any sex to compete for the position. >> is it just physical standards? >> no, it not just physical standards. the standards we have for occupational -- for these military occupations or the military calls them ratings they including the from mental standards to physical standards. but physical standards are the one that people focus on. >> what about privacy? >> we can fix out privacy. by the way, desert shield, desert storm 1991 h we did live in that environment where we were somewhat in the zests and we figured out privacy. we can do that. >> the fact is, women are now in the ranks and that was the concern of the time.
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-- women are now in submarines. but we've been able to adapt to that situation. women are fighter pilots, air force, navy, have moved in that direction. marines and the army obviously are going to move in the same direction. they are going to be -- there will have to be some adjustments in some situations. based on the experience that we already have we make those adjustments. >> it sounds like there might be combat operational situations where women might be excluded from still. what would be the reasons for that? what sorts of operations -- >> i wouldn't put in the terms of operations. as we look at the requirements
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for a spectrum of conflict. we really need to have standards that apply all of those. importantly though, if we decide a particular standard is so high that a woman couldn't make it the burden is on the service to come back and explain why is it that high? does it have to be that high? with the direct combat exclusion we never to do have that conversation. >> your personal opinion as if women maybe able to serve, especially those as navy seals? >> if you look back at what i've said when i was the chief staff, i think we all believe that thereby women who can meet those standards. the other part of the equation, of course, is in order to account for their safety and success in those kinds of units.
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we have to have enough of them so they have mentors and leaders above them. you don't want to take one woman who can meet a standard and put her in a particular unit. the issue there wouldn't be privacy it would be where to have upward mobility if she's one of one. we have to work both the standards and the kind of critical mass, if you will, to make this work. that is our commitment. >> by the way, that's why i asked services to provide a plan that would be presented in may of this year. it will point out exactly how this is to be implemented. >> briefly about president obama's involvement with this discussion, how hutch was he involved? >> we had the opportunity to meet with the president usually every week, depend on his schedule. but we met with him individually to go over issues.
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over the past year, i have regularly briefed the president on what was going on with regards to this issue that we had opened up the additional positions that we're looking at providing even more opportunities to women. he was very supportive. >> i would like to add, he was supportive and always encouraged us to ensure that whatever we did, it made the force better and made and assured readiness. he is alert to the fact that the armed forces have to be ready. >> is it possible that -- earlier you said it was your experience traveling around and seeing these women in these positions? it was in the last 18 months -- >> well, at the c.i.a., i tell you that, you know, we were at a point where close to 50% of the people working there are
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women. for me it was really reassuring to see young men and women were equally dedicated to the intelligence services. then coming here to the army and going out and seeing that firsthand, it was again, something for me, was a special experience. i thought, you know, america stands for giving young people those kinds of opportunities. if they can do the job, if they can meet the standards, if they can meet, you know, the qualifications that are involved here, there is no reason why they should not have a chance. that is a fundamental belief of me and i think that is a fundamental belief of the american people. >> today, the british, french, and the dutch are pulling their
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citizens out of benghazi saying there is a threat. is the u.s. going to help at all getting citizens out and because you certainly would want civilians to be safe. what is this threat in benghazi? secondly, on algeria, can you update us on who may have been responsible? do you view that they have rejoined forces? do you think there is involvement as what secretary clinton said yesterday? >> on benghazi, it is no mystery that it is a dangerous situation there. everybody in that area, i think
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is very concerned that they can't provide the security necessary to protect people in those places. i think that is why these countries have made the decision that they have made. as far as i know, we have not been asked to participate in moving anybody out of benghazi. >> i will pick up the rest of the question. the way to think about the north africa and west africa is a syndicate of groups who come together when it is convenient to them in order to advance their cause. sometimes their cause is terrorism, sometimes it is trafficking. in algeria and mali, it is aqim
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and there is a group out there and they work together when it is convenient to them. what we have to be alert to is as we look at the individual groups or the individual countries we have to acknowledge the connective tissue there. that takes us to a regional strategy not necessary a country specific strategy. >> with regard to algeria and what happened there. the qim did take credit for what took place. as of this moment, have not been able to look at the specifics of who was involved, who took place. we understand the algerians are questioning two individuals that
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they were able to capture during this operation. so we're hoping we will get better information from them specifically as to who was involved. >> if i could quickly follow-up. you and the president have said in the cases of benghazi and algeria that you would go after the perpetrators, that americans were killed. how do you do that in north africa when you have this mix? can you still promise that you're going to get the perpetrators of these two incidents that killed americans? >> i can assure you, if we find out who the perpetrators were we're going to go after them. that will be the first challenge is to determine precisely who was involved here. americans were killed. we don't stand by when americans are killed and not take action. without getting into specifics we will take whatever action is
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necessary to go after these people. >> you both said this decision will make the military stronger. there will be and there are critics of that premises. can you give us examples on how putting women in the most physically demanding situations will make our military forces stronger? >> let me not limit it to military. i graduated from west point in 1974. it was an all-male institution. i came back in 1976 to get married and i watched the first class of women enter. i wondered what that would be like. i went back to teach and found the academy a better place than it was when i was there. it became better in almost every way.
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it was just a better place. and i attribute to the fact that we opened up the academy to women. secondly, we had this ongoing issue with sexual harassment, sexual assault, i believe it is because we have separate classes of military personnel, at some level. it is far more complicated than that. but when you have one part of the population that is designated as warriors then you have another part designated as something else i think that disparity establishes a psychology that in some cases led to that environment. i believe that the more we treat people equally, the more likely they are to treat each other equally. >> is there any thought in changing the selective service
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requirements so that young women at age 18 will have to -- if we were to reintroduce the draft -- and is it safe to say this was your idea to go forward with these changes? >> no, when it comes to an issue like this, this was a team effort. it was, you know, the joint chiefs and i, we have the opportunity to meet almost every other week. sometimes we did meet every week in the tank to talk about these issues. opening up opportunities for men and women in the military has always been something we've talked about. they expressed an interest in it, i expressed an interest in it and we worked together to ensure that we take steps to do that. i, basically -- general dempsey
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and i looked at each other and i said look, we both know that we want to be able to open these opportunities up. but i want to make sure that you and the military, you know, really are the one who is are the movers with regards to this idea. they got to support it, they have to back it up. to their credit, they are the ones that came forward with the recommendation. i was very pleased when i got that recommendation because it was a fulfillment to what we talked about and what we want to achieve. with regard to selective service, that is not our operation. i don't know who the hell controls that, if you want to know the truth. whoever does they have to exercise some judgment based on what we just did.
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>> what specialties were open today, none, we just made the announcement. give us a break we need time to sort it out. >> what is the best training for a policeman? >> the best training you can get -- i will say that until the day i die. you learn how to use intelligence information, you learn how to leverage relationships and that is the key. people in the community trust you, they will tell you things that are happening so that you can intervene, and they will tell you all about how to go about doing it. i have learned the most in my career from those relationships. >> from high school dropout and single mother to the youngest
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police chief in washington, d.c. history, more with cathy linear, on c-span's "q&a". >> conservative leaders and writers will meet tomorrow to talk about conservative policy. hosted by the national review, live coverage starts at 5 eastern. >> personal finance starts with sylvia porter. the 1930's are known for everything from the hard economic times of the 1930's, use the alcoholics anonymous develop in the 1930's, to various social activist movements. fascism and communism have a huge appeal. sylvia porter develops personal finance over eight period of
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years. it is very much an idea that we can teach people certain skills, and if they learn the skills, we will all be okay. next the dark side of the personal finance industry with helaine olen. look for more c-span online and like us on facebook. >> general carter him spoke at howard university about security and counterterrorism challenges in northern africa, including mali. president obama nominated general david rodriguez to replace general ham. this is just over an hour. >> good afternoon, and welcome.
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i am carol scott, interim director of the ralph bunche international affairs center. it is my pleasure to welcome on behalf ofr had om our presidents and wayne frederick, are provost. general ham has had a distinguished career in public service and the military. he served as an enlisted entry man before attending carroll university in cleveland, ohio. he was commissioned an infantry as a distinguished military graduate and his military career included assignments in kentucky, ohio, california, and germany, just to name a few. he has also served in saudi arabia, qatar, estonia, and iraq. he has held a variety of positions to include italian
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executive officer at the national training center, adviser to saudi arabia national guardsmen, chief of staff, infantry division, commander, and commander in iraq. his military education includes naval college of command, graduating with distinction. i want to say a few notes about the program today. general ham is going to speak, and then we will have a question and answer session. i ask that we all be mindful of the time, and keep our questions brief. please be mindful that this is a lecture, and we are going to encourage faculty and student participation. i will recognize our students burst before moving to faculty. one final note.
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although diplomatic achievements are well known, what is less well-known is that he began his career in the uss. were the things ralph bunche was doing while he was in the cia was riding intelligence assessments before world war ii, stressing the national security importance of africa to the united states. he was one of the first people in the u.s. government that looked as africa as something the u.s. should take seriously. i find it interesting that africom was organized to do exactly that. it gives me this opportunity to welcome general carter ham and to welcome africom back to power. [applause] >> thanks very much, dr. scott. that was a very kind introduction.
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i would just point out one fact. in his introduction, he cited some of the places i have served over time and things i have done. you heard no mention of service in africa, which is an interesting thing for the guy who was commanding united states and africa command. the fact of the matter is, until very recently, africa was not very high on the list of priorities for the united states military. so it is an interesting juxtaposition to come to howard university, university founded 1867, with the nation's oldest african studies program, and be the guy who is commanding an organization that is less than five years old, started the first of october 2008. so we have a mix perhaps of the .ld and the noew
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i would like to take a few minutes to talk a little bit about who we are, what we are doing. a couple of timely topics, perhaps, but reserve most of the time for your questions and comments and discussions. i think that is why you came. more to your that kind of this discussion and to hear me rattle on. we will certainly focus on that as we move forward. again, let me come back to this. -- come back to this point of lying africom, which formed -- africom?hy six commands that look at parts of the world day in and day out. it will not surprise you there is a gm have been the geographic command, one specifically for south america and one now for north america. they used to not be one of
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those until after 9/11. one for the mideast, we call that central command. it does iraq and afghanistan and that part of the world, and then european command, which until 2008, also had responsibility for africa. i think happened in the mid- 2000's is that the united states, perhaps belatedly, came to the conclusion that africa was and is of great concern to the united states in many different ways. one of them being on the security front. in the mid-2000's, the decision was made that they would formally established a command in 2008. the benefit of that is frankly, there is a group of people with whom i served, who wake up every day thinking about african
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security. we did not have that before. the focus of the command was split between europe and africa and a wildly different criteria and factors to be considered. if nothing else, there is some good news in having a group of people who think about africa, who established relationships with african leaders, both military and civilian, and hopefully will establish enduring relationships which will be very, very important for us. the mission of the command is quite simple. it is to protect the national interest of the united states. we are at united states military organization. that is what the u.s. military does. what is interesting to us is that we do that perhaps a little differently than many of the other geographic combatant commands of the u.s. military. we find that we are at our best in the way we best protect the national security interest of
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the united states and africa, by strengthening the defense capabilities of african nations so that they are able to provide for their own security, and importantly, increasingly contribute to regional security and stability as well. like every other u.s. military organization, you have to always be prepared to conduct military operations at the direction of our president and secretary of defense. the operations in libya in 2011 are an example of that, that when so directed by our president, then we have to take on those kinds of actions. but mostly, we think our effort is best when we are working to increase the capability of our african partners. our activities in africa are guided by two overarching but simple principles. the first is simply that the
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stable, secure africa is in the best interest not only of the african countries, but of our country as well. the second principle is one that was articulated first by president obama when he visited ghana in 2009. he stated that in the long run, it is africans who are best able and as capable of addressing paprikas challenges. that often gets convinced index shorthand of african solutions to african problems, but it is an important principle. secretary clinton expanded on president obama's views and said yes, african solutions for african problems, but increasingly, global problems require african solutions as well. i think what secretary clinton was getting at is that africa is no longer isolated. africa is part of a broader, global community, and the african countries have a role to
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play and have contributions to make. so those principles are quite important for us as we think about what is that we are supposed to do on behalf of our country. we are guided also by to overarching documents, united states government documents that help shape our activities. the first is the presidential policy directive on sub-saharan africa. it outlines the u.s. government of the policy and strategy toward africa. it is based on four pillars. the first, to promote opportunity and development. the second, to spur economic growth, trade, an investment. thirdly, to advance peace and security. fourth, to strengthen democratic institutions. that is what our country said, that is what our president said. that is how we are going to build the united states strategy and our policy toward africa.
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we at africom will focus mostly on that third pillar of advancing peace and security in our engagements with individual african states, with regional organizations, and with the african union, as we move forward -- help them move forward to achieve the other three objectives. it is important to recognize that advancing peace and security is foundational to achieving the other three pillars. it is tough to have good governance. it is tough to have opportunities keep you don't have a least a modicum of peace and stability. we think our objectives are pretty important. the presidential policy directive helps shape our activities in africa as it does every other branch an element of the u.s. government. the second document that guides our actions is the defense strategic guidance which was
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issued by the president and secretary of defense about a year ago. this is the document that articulates in general terms what is expected of the armed forces of the united states. it is in this document where we first codify the idea of rebalance toward specifics. you have heard that phrase in discussions but is in s -- in this document where that comes up. what does that mean for us in africa? the priority regions of the world, for the u.s. defense establishment or the pacific and the mideast. in fact, if you read the document, which would encourage you to do, you'll find that the word africa appears precisely one time. you read that and you say, oh my goodness. our african partners read that and say, does that mean you don't care about us?
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my response to that is, don't focus so much on the word, don't focus so much on the geography. i think for understandable reasons, the pacific is vitally important to the united states, economically, politically -- there is a focus there. when you look at the articulation of the priorities that the nation establishes for the armed forces, we find that the activities that the u.s. military engages in in africa come through loud and clear. at the top of that list, not surprisingly, is countering violent extremist organizations. sadly, that is a necessary function for us in africa today, but it is not the only thing we do. we do a lot more. another priority is maintaining global access to and throughout the continent so as to
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facilitate global trade. africa is a place that has two strategic chokepoint. people forget that one half of the strait of gibraltar is in africa. everybody thinks about the european side and they forget about the african side. it takes two sides to make a strait. a lot of economic traffic passes through those to choke point. maintaining global access is important. a third priority articulated in the strategic guidance will be called building part of capacity. this is the substance of what we do in africa. this is working with african partners, again, to help them build capabilities and the capacities they need, not only for their own security, but so they can contribute to regional organizations that build
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security as well. you say why do we want to do this? why is that in the best interest of the united states? if they are capable of security forces, it lessens the likelihood of conflict and the likelihood that there will be disputes between nations. and it lessens the likelihood that u.s. military activities might be required. so we think for a multiplicity of reasons, working with our african partners to increase their capability is a worthwhile endeavour and in fact the main effort on the continent. another set of requirements are assisting with humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. again, regrettably, these are circumstances that present themselves in africa, and sometimes they are of such magnitude that they exceed the capacity of the host nations to contend with, and sometimes they
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need a little bit of help. the last priority is one that is relatively new, if not in concept, new in formalized doctrine and guidance from the united states. that is the prevention and response to mass atrocities. again, it is unfortunate, but the fact is mass atrocities have occurred in africa. we are working wykoff african military, some of which in the past have been the cause of mass atrocities. all of that says to me that while africa is not a priority region of the world, as articulated in easter -- defense strategic guidance, the task given to the u.s. military in that strategic guidance matched very cleanly with what we are
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trying to do inside africa. let me shift now to just highlight a couple of ongoing activities and maybe that will spur some thought for questions and comments. we will shift to that very quickly. as i mentioned, our highest priority is countering the growing network of violent extremist organizations in africa. another way to put that is our mission is to protect americans and american interests from threats that may emerge from the continent of africa. we see this manifest itself in somalia with al-shabab, in the maghreb, playing out now in mali with al qaeda in the land of the islamic maghreb, and other organizations shifting a bit further south into nigeria. organizations that are all focused on undermining the
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governments of those countries and establishing their own regime of control, outside of legitimate government control. while i am very concerned about each of those individual entities, al-shabab, aqim, it is increasingly the coronation, the synchronization of the efforts of those different organizations that is of concern to me. we are starting to see increasing collaboration, sharing of funding, sharing recruiting efforts, sharing of weapons and explosives, and certainly a sharing of an ideology that is expanding and connecting these various organizations. i think that is what poses at least the greatest immediate threat in the region. my guess is you will probably have some questions about
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activities in mali, and we can certainly talk about that. a second set of ongoing efforts is the african led effort to bring to the lord's resistance army leader joseph kony and his senior lieutenants to justice as they are indicted by the international criminal court. just over year-ago president obama directed us to deploy a small number of u.s. special operations personnel to assist the militaries of the four countries involved in this effort. uganda, south sudan, center african republic and the democratic republic of congo. our role is not to be tracking down kony. the ugandan, central africans are much better at that than we would be, but we do bring u.s. capabilities in terms of intelligence, mobility, logistics, and other
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capabilities. we have seen some progress as of late with increased defections, increased effectiveness by the african forces. the ever against the lord's resistance army continues. there are a number of other events that we can certainly talk about in the question and answer period. it is real easy in africa to focus on all the negative things. there are challenges in mali, to be sure. libya has challenges. the great lakes region is certainly in turmoil, and in many other places, there are lots of problems. it's worthwhile every now and then to take a step back, and in addition to looking at the problems, which is important to do, but it is also important to look at the good things and at the opportunities that present themselves. africa is home, depending which
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survey you look at, to six or seven of the fastest-growing economies in the world. that is pretty extraordinary. but it gets lost in the noise sometimes. there are lots of countries that have successful elections. we focus on those where there is a coup or other unsettling events and we can do not think about the places where there have been very successful elections and good progress made. so all of that says to me that africa, while certainly the home of lots of challenges, is also the home of great opportunity and progress and hope. we should never forget about that as well. in the two years i have been in command, i have had the opportunity to travel quite a bit in africa. i have been to 42 of the countries. it is exciting, exhilarating,
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tiring, at times, to be sure. one of the things i learned early on, a member of my staff belongs to the u.s. foreign service. they gave me a list of african problems and said you ought to think about these and what these mean. i found one that i think ideally captors what we at u.s. africom are trying to do. it says simply, if you want to go fast, go alone. if you want to go far, go together. we at u.s. africa command choose to go far, and we choose to go together with our african partners. with that, thank you very much, and i will welcome your questions. [applause] >> i think the ground rule is if it is an easy one, i will answer it, and if it is a hard